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Volume 9 Issue 3

Jul.  1992

Article Contents

An Impact of Hydrostatic Extraction Scheme on BMRC’s Global Spectral Model


doi: 10.1007/BF02656937

  • There are two important features in geophysical fluid dynamics. One is that the atmospheric and oceanic equa-tions of motion include the Coriolis force; another is that they describe a stratified fluid. The hydrostatic extraction scheme, or standard stratification approximation, posed by Zeng (1979), reflects the second aspect of geophysical flu-id dynamics. There exist two major advantages in this scheme; accurate computation of the pressure gradient force can be obtained over steep mountain slopes, and the accumulation error in vertical finite differencing can be reduced, especially near the tropopause.Chen et al (1987) introduced the hydrostatic extraction scheme into a global spectral model, which attained pre-liminary success at low resolution. Zhang and Sheng et al (1990) developed and improved the hydrostatic extraction scheme in a global spectral model, in which C0, the parameter that represents the stratification of the reference at-mosphere, changes not only with height, but also with latitude. The scheme has been incorporated BMRC’s global spectral model (IAPB). Four 5-day forecasts have been performed to test the IAPB with the hydrostatic extraction scheme. Objective verifications demonstrate a positive effect of the hydrostatic extration scheme on BMRC’s model, particularly at upper levels, over the tropics and the Antartic region.
  • [1] Zhang Daomin, Sheng Hua, Ji Liren, 1990: Development and Test of Hydrostatic Extraction Scheme in Spectral Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 7, 142-153.  doi: 10.1007/BF02919152
    [2] Chen Jiabin, Ji Liren, Wu Wanli, 1987: DESIGN AND TEST OF AN IMPROVED SCHEME FOR GLOBAL SPECTRAL MODEL WITH REDUCED TRUNCATION ERROR, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 4, 156-168.  doi: 10.1007/BF02677062
    [3] Yifan ZHAO, Xindong PENG, Xiaohan LI, Siyuan CHEN, 2024: Improved Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation on Land in a Global Non-Hydrostatic Model Using a Revised NSAS Deep Convective Scheme, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 41, 1217-1234.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-023-3121-7
    [4] BAO Qing, LIN Pengfei, ZHOU Tianjun, LIU Yimin, YU Yongqiang, WU Guoxiong, HE Bian, HE Jie, LI Lijuan, LI Jiandong, LI Yangchun, LIU Hailong, QIAO Fangli, SONG Zhenya, WANG Bin, WANG Jun, WANG Pengfei, WANG Xiaocong, WANG Zaizhi, WU Bo, WU Tongwen, XU Yongfu, YU Haiyang, ZHAO Wei, ZHENG Weipeng, and ZHOU Linjiong, , 2013: The Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model, Spectral Version 2: FGOALS-s2, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 30, 561-576.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2113-9
    [5] ZHAO Bin, ZHONG Qing, 2010: The Development of a Nonhydrostatic Global Spectral Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 676-684.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9080-9
    [6] Zhang Daomin, Li Jinlong, Ji Liren, Huang Boyin, Wu Wanli, Chen Jiabin, Song Zhengshan, 1995: A Global Spectral Model and Test of Its Performance, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 12, 67-78.  doi: 10.1007/BF02661288
    [7] Huan MEI, Faming WANG, Zhong ZENG, Zhouhua QIU, Linmao YIN, Liang LI, 2016: A Global Spectral Element Model for Poisson Equations and Advective Flow over a Sphere, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 33, 377-390.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-5001-2
    [8] DAI Tie, SHI Guangyu, Teruyuki NAKAJIMA, 2015: Analysis and Evaluation of the Global Aerosol Optical Properties Simulated by an Online Aerosol-coupled Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 743-758.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-4098-z
    [9] WANG Xiaocong, LIU Yimin, WU Guoxiong, Shian-Jiann LIN, BAO Qing, 2013: The Application of Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian Transport Scheme in a Spectral Atmosphere Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 30, 89-100.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2039-2
    [10] Ni Yunqi, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, David D. Houghton, 1987: THE SENSITIVITY OF THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO OROGRAPHY SPECIFICATION IN THE LOWRESOLUTION SPECTRAL MODEL-PART II: IMPACT OF THE SMOOTHED OROGRAPHY AND RIPPLES ON SIMULATIONS, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 4, 145-155.  doi: 10.1007/BF02677061
    [11] Ni Yunqi, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, David D. Houghton, 1988: THE EFFECTS OF TOPOGRAPHY ON THE SUMMER ATMOS-PHERIC ENERGETICS OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE IN A LOW-RESOLUTION GLOBAL SPECTRAL MODEL, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 5, 181-194.  doi: 10.1007/BF02656780
    [12] Ni Yunqi, Zhang Qin, Lin Wuyin, 1991: Seasonal Characteristics and Interannual Variability of Monthly Scale Low-Frequency Oscillation in a Low-Order Global Spectral Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 8, 307-316.  doi: 10.1007/BF02919613
    [13] WANG Jun, BAO Qing, Ning ZENG, LIU Yimin, WU Guoxiong, JI Duoying, 2013: Earth System Model FGOALS-s2: Coupling a Dynamic Global Vegetation and Terrestrial Carbon Model with the Physical Climate System Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 30, 1549-1559.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-2169-1
    [14] LI Fang, ZENG Xiaodong, SONG Xiang, TIAN Dongxiao, SHAO Pu, ZHANG Dongling, 2011: Impact of Spin-up Forcing on Vegetation States Simulated by a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model Coupled with a Land Surface Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 28, 775-788.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-0009-0
    [15] ZHOU Tianjun, SONG Fengfei, and CHEN Xiaolong, 2013: Historical Evolution of Global and Regional Surface Air Temperature Simulated by FGOALS-s2 and FGOALS-g2: How Reliable Are the Model Results?, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 30, 638-657.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-2205-1
    [16] Liao Dongxian, 1989: A Regional Spectral Nested Shallow Water Equation Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 6, 393-402.  doi: 10.1007/BF02659074
    [17] Liao Dongxian, 1990: A Regional Spectral Nested Multilevel Primitive Equation Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 7, 27-35.  doi: 10.1007/BF02919165
    [18] Suk-Jin CHOI, Dong-Kyou LEE, 2016: Impact of Spectral Nudging on the Downscaling of Tropical Cyclones in Regional Climate Simulations, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 33, 730-742.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-016-5061-y
    [19] Fu Congbin, Xie Li, 1998: Global Oceanic Climate Anomalies in 1980’s, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 15, 167-178.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-998-0037-1
    [20] LI Xiaohan, PENG Xindong, LI Xingliang, 2015: An Improved Dynamic Core for a Non-hydrostatic Model System on the Yin-Yang Grid, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 648-658.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-4120-5

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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 10 July 1992
Manuscript revised: 10 July 1992
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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An Impact of Hydrostatic Extraction Scheme on BMRC’s Global Spectral Model

  • 1. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing,Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre,Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre

Abstract: There are two important features in geophysical fluid dynamics. One is that the atmospheric and oceanic equa-tions of motion include the Coriolis force; another is that they describe a stratified fluid. The hydrostatic extraction scheme, or standard stratification approximation, posed by Zeng (1979), reflects the second aspect of geophysical flu-id dynamics. There exist two major advantages in this scheme; accurate computation of the pressure gradient force can be obtained over steep mountain slopes, and the accumulation error in vertical finite differencing can be reduced, especially near the tropopause.Chen et al (1987) introduced the hydrostatic extraction scheme into a global spectral model, which attained pre-liminary success at low resolution. Zhang and Sheng et al (1990) developed and improved the hydrostatic extraction scheme in a global spectral model, in which C0, the parameter that represents the stratification of the reference at-mosphere, changes not only with height, but also with latitude. The scheme has been incorporated BMRC’s global spectral model (IAPB). Four 5-day forecasts have been performed to test the IAPB with the hydrostatic extraction scheme. Objective verifications demonstrate a positive effect of the hydrostatic extration scheme on BMRC’s model, particularly at upper levels, over the tropics and the Antartic region.

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