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Volume 9 Issue 3

Jul.  1992

Article Contents

Wintertime Stratospheric Anomalies-Part II: Sudden Warmings


doi: 10.1007/BF02656941

  • The process of stratospheric sudden warmings from development of planetary waves to the sudden cooling after reversal of mean zonal circulation will be studied with the primitive equations of heat and momentum balances. It will be explained that the sudden warmings may occur only in the polar regions of winter stratosphere where zonal mean temperature decreases poleward. The heating rate in the order of major warmings is produced by developed planetary waves in the stratospheric breaking layers. The particular perturbation structure characterized by large amplitude of wave 1 together with minimum of wave 2 discovered by Labitzke (1977) is crucial for initiation of major warmings. The cooling by the same mechanism can be produced in the regions with reversed mean temperature gradient.
  • [1] Y. L. McHall, 1992: Wintertime Stratospheric Anomalies-Part I: Warm Pools, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 9, 299-310.  doi: 10.1007/BF02656940
    [2] Masakazu TAGUCHI, 2020: Verification of Subseasonal-to-Seasonal Forecasts for Major Stratospheric Sudden Warmings in Northern Winter from 1998/99 to 2012/13, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 37, 250-258.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9195-6
    [3] V. N. R. Mukku, C. S. Bhosale, 1991: Ozone during Stratospheric Warmings at Uccle, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 8, 251-255.  doi: 10.1007/BF02658099
    [4] DENG Shumei, CHEN Yuejuan, LUO Tao, BI Yun, ZHOU Houfu, 2008: The Possible Influence of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on East Asian Weather, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 25, 841-846.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0841-7
    [5] DENG Shumei, CHEN Yuejuan, HUANG Yong, LUO Tao, BI Yun, 2011: Transient Characteristics of Residual Meridional Circulation during Stratospheric Sudden Warming, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 28, 551-563.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-0010-7
    [6] Xiaohua XU, Daocheng YU, Jia LUO, 2018: The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Global Stratospheric Gravity Waves and Their Activity during Sudden Stratospheric Warming Revealed by COSMIC Measurements, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 35, 1533-1546.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-018-5053-1
    [7] ZUO Qunjie, GAO Shouting, LU Daren, 2012: Kinetic and Available Potential Energy Transport during the Stratospheric Sudden Warming in January 2009, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 29, 1343-1359.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-1198-5
    [8] Yingxian ZHANG, Dong SI, Yihui DING, Dabang JIANG, Qingquan LI, Guofu WANG, 2022: Influence of Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming on the Unprecedented Cold Wave in East Asia in January 2021, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 39, 576-590.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-022-1318-9
    [9] Yuanpu LI, Wenshou TIAN, 2017: Different Impact of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Niño on the Duration of Sudden Stratospheric Warming, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 34, 771-782.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6286-0
    [10] Mengchu TAO, Yi LIU, Yuli ZHANG, 2017: Variation in Brewer-Dobson Circulation During Three Sudden Stratospheric Major Warming Events in the 2000s, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 34, 1415-1425.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6321-1
    [11] Jian RAO, Rongcai REN, Haishan CHEN, Xiangwen LIU, Yueyue YU, Yang YANG, 2019: Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Hindcasts of Stratospheric Sudden Warming by BCC_CSM1.1(m): A Comparison with ECMWF, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 36, 479-494.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-018-8165-8
    [12] Jian RAO, Siming LIU, Yuanhao CHEN, 2021: Northern Hemisphere Sudden Stratospheric Warming and Its Downward Impact in Four Chinese CMIP6 Models, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 38, 187-202.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-020-0250-0
    [13] ZHANG Yuli, LIU Yi, LIU Chuanxi, V. F. SOFIEVA, 2015: Satellite Measurements of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in Wintertime Stratospheric Ozone over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 1481-1492.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-5005-y
    [14] Jiayi PENG, Melinda S. PENG, Tim LI, Eric HENDRICKS, 2014: Effect of Baroclinicity on Vortex Axisymmetrization. Part II: Baroclinic Basic Vortex, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 31, 1267-1278.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-3238-9
    [15] Y. L. McHall, 1993: Large Scale Perturbations in Extratropical Atmosphere-Part II: On Geostrophic Waves, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 10, 181-192.  doi: 10.1007/BF02919140
    [16] Yong L. McHall, 1993: Group Velocity of Anisotropic Waves-Part II: Conservative Properties, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 10, 407-414.  doi: 10.1007/BF02656965
    [17] T.N.Krishnamurti, Sheng Jian, 1985: THE HEATING FIELD IN AN ASYMMETRIC HURRICANE PART II:RESULTS OF COMPUTATIONS, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 2, 426-445.  doi: 10.1007/BF02678742
    [18] Yong. L. McHall, 1991: Planetary Stationary Waves in the Atmosphere Part II: Thermal Stationary Waves, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 8, 225-236.  doi: 10.1007/BF02658096
    [19] Qian LU, Jian RAO, Chunhua SHI, Dong GUO, Ji WANG, Zhuoqi LIANG, Tian WANG, 2022: Observational Subseasonal Variability of the PM2.5 Concentration in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area during the January 2021 Sudden Stratospheric Warming, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 39, 1623-1636.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-022-1393-y
    [20] Tao WANG, Qiang FU, Wenshou TIAN, Hongwen LIU, Yifeng PENG, Fei XIE, Hongying TIAN, Jiali LUO, 2023: The Influence of Meridional Variation in North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies on the Arctic Stratospheric Polar Vortex, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 40, 2262-2278.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-022-2033-2

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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 10 July 1992
Manuscript revised: 10 July 1992
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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Wintertime Stratospheric Anomalies-Part II: Sudden Warmings

  • 1. Dept. of Meteorology, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, U. K.

Abstract: The process of stratospheric sudden warmings from development of planetary waves to the sudden cooling after reversal of mean zonal circulation will be studied with the primitive equations of heat and momentum balances. It will be explained that the sudden warmings may occur only in the polar regions of winter stratosphere where zonal mean temperature decreases poleward. The heating rate in the order of major warmings is produced by developed planetary waves in the stratospheric breaking layers. The particular perturbation structure characterized by large amplitude of wave 1 together with minimum of wave 2 discovered by Labitzke (1977) is crucial for initiation of major warmings. The cooling by the same mechanism can be produced in the regions with reversed mean temperature gradient.

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