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A Parameterization of Bowen Ratio with Respect to Soil Moisture Availability


doi: 10.1007/BF02657005

  • The Bowen ratio (B) is impacted by 5 environmental elements: soil moisture availability, m, the ratio of resist-ances between atmosphere and soil pores, ra/rd, atmospheric relative humidity, h, atmospheric stability, ΔT, and environment temperature. These impacts have been investigated over diverse surfaces, including bare soil, free water surface, and vegetation covered land, using an analytical approach. It was concluded that: (a) B is not a continuous function. The singularity exists at the condition αhcb=h, occurring preferably in the following conditions: weak turbulence, stable stratified stability, dry soil, and humid air, where hcb, defined by Eq.(11) is a critical variable. The existence of a singularity makes the dependence of B on the five variables very complicated. The value of B approaches being inversely proportional to m under the conditions m≥mfc (the soil capacity) and / or ra/rd→0. The proportional coefficient changes with season and latitude with relatively high values in winter and over the poles; (b) B is nearly independent of ra/rd during the day. The impact of m on B is much larger as compared to that of ra/rd on B, (c) when h increases, the absolute value of B also increases; (d) over bare soil, when the absolute surface net radiation increases, the absolute value of B will increase. The impact of RN on B is larger at night than during the day, and (e) over plant canopy, the singularity and the dependcies of B on m, ra , and h are modified as compared to that over bare soil. Also (i) during the daytime unstable condition, m exerts an even stronger impact on B, at night, however, B changes are weak in response to the change in m; (ii) the value of B is much more sensitive in response to the changes of turbulent intensity; (iii) the B response to the variation of h over a vegetation covered area is weaker; and (iv) the singularity exists at the condition hcp=h instead of αhcb=h as over bare soil, where hcp is defined by Eq.(49). The formulas derived over bare soil also hold the same when applied to free water bodies as long as they are visualized as a special soil in which the volumetric fraction of soil pore is equal to one and are fully filled with water. Finally, the above discussions, are used to briefly study the impact on the thermally induced mesoscale circulations.
  • [1] Ye Zhuojia, Jia Xinyuan, 1991: The Impact of Soil Moisture Availability upon the Partition of Net Radiation into Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 8, 339-350.  doi: 10.1007/BF02919616
    [2] Bo HAN, Shihua LÜ, Ruiqing LI, Xin WANG, Lin ZHAO, Cailing ZHAO, Danyun WANG, Xianhong MENG, 2017: Global Land Surface Climate Analysis Based on the Calculation of a Modified Bowen Ratio, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 34, 663-678.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-016-6175-y
    [3] Feng ZHANG, Yadong LEI, Jia-Ren YAN, Jian-Qi ZHAO, Jiangnan LI, Qiudan DAI, 2017: A New Parameterization of Canopy Radiative Transfer for Land Surface Radiation Models, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 34, 613-622.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-016-6139-2
    [4] Chuanjie YANG, Guang LI, Lijuan YAN, Weiwei MA, Jiangqi WU, Yan TAN, Shuainan LIU, Shikang ZHANG, 2022: Effects of Plant Community Type on Soil Methane Flux in Semiarid Loess Hilly Region, Central Gansu Province, China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 39, 1360-1374.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-022-1169-4
    [5] LIU Shuhua, YUE Xu, LIU Huizhi, HU Fei, 2004: Using a Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Scheme (MSPAS) to Study the Sensitivity of Land Surface and Boundary Layer Processes to Soil and Vegetation Conditions, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 21, 717-729.  doi: 10.1007/BF02916369
    [6] LIU Shuhua, YUE Xu, HU Fei, LIU Huizhi, 2004: Using a Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Scheme (MSPAS) to Simulate the Interaction between Land Surface Processes and Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Semi-Arid Regions, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 21, 245-259.  doi: 10.1007/BF02915711
    [7] LIU Shikuo, LIU Shida, FU Zuntao, SUN Lan, 2005: A Nonlinear Coupled Soil Moisture-Vegetation Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 22, 337-342.  doi: 10.1007/BF02918747
    [8] Jia Xinyuan, Ye Zhuojia, 1990: The Impact of Soil Moisture on Dispersion-Related Characteristics, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 7, 441-452.  doi: 10.1007/BF03008874
    [9] NIE Suping, LUO Yong, ZHU Jiang, 2008: Trends and Scales of Observed Soil Moisture Variations in China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 25, 43-58.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0043-3
    [10] Liu Jingmiao, Ding Yuguo, Zhou Xiuji, Wang Jijun, 2002: Land Surface Hydrology Parameterization over Heterogeneous Surface for the Study of Regional Mean Runoff Ratio with Its Simulations, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 19, 89-102.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-002-0036-6
    [11] Changyu ZHAO, Haishan CHEN, Shanlei SUN, 2018: Evaluating the Capabilities of Soil Enthalpy, Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature in Predicting Seasonal Precipitation, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 35, 445-456.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-7006-5
    [12] Zhang Yu, Lu Shihua, 2002: Development and Validation of a Simple Frozen Soil Parameterization Scheme Used for Climate Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 19, 513-527.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-002-0083-z
    [13] DAN Li, JI Jinjun, ZHANG Peiqun, 2005: The Soil Moisture of China in a High Resolution Climate-Vegetation Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 22, 720-729.  doi: 10.1007/BF02918715
    [14] GUO Weidong, WANG Huijun, 2003: A Case Study of the Improvement of Soil Moisture Initialization in IAP-PSSCA, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 20, 845-848.  doi: 10.1007/BF02915411
    [15] Zhiyan ZUO, Renhe ZHANG, 2016: Influence of Soil Moisture in Eastern China on the East Asian Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 33, 151-163.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-5024-8
    [16] ZHANG Shuwen, LI Deqin, QIU Chongjian, 2011: A Multimodel Ensemble-based Kalman Filter for the Retrieval of Soil Moisture Profiles, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 28, 195-206.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-9200-6
    [17] Jiangshan ZHU, Fanyou KONG, Xiao-Ming HU, Yan GUO, Lingkun RAN, Hengchi LEI, 2018: Impact of Soil Moisture Uncertainty on Summertime Short-range Ensemble Forecasts, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 35, 839-852.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-7107-1
    [18] LIU Huizhi, WANG Baomin, FU Congbin, 2008: Relationships Between Surface Albedo, Soil Thermal Parameters and Soil Moisture in the Semi-arid Area of Tongyu, Northeastern China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 25, 757-764.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0757-2
    [19] GUAN Xiaodan, HUANG Jianping, GUO Ni, BI Jianrong, WANG Guoyin, 2009: Variability of Soil Moisture and Its Relationship with Surface Albedo and Soil Thermal Parameters over the Loess Plateau, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 26, 692-700.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-8198-0
    [20] DAI Qiudan, SUN Shufen, 2006: A Generalized Layered Radiative Transfer Model in the Vegetation Canopy, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 23, 243-257.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0243-7

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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 10 October 1995
Manuscript revised: 10 October 1995
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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A Parameterization of Bowen Ratio with Respect to Soil Moisture Availability

  • 1. 

Abstract: The Bowen ratio (B) is impacted by 5 environmental elements: soil moisture availability, m, the ratio of resist-ances between atmosphere and soil pores, ra/rd, atmospheric relative humidity, h, atmospheric stability, ΔT, and environment temperature. These impacts have been investigated over diverse surfaces, including bare soil, free water surface, and vegetation covered land, using an analytical approach. It was concluded that: (a) B is not a continuous function. The singularity exists at the condition αhcb=h, occurring preferably in the following conditions: weak turbulence, stable stratified stability, dry soil, and humid air, where hcb, defined by Eq.(11) is a critical variable. The existence of a singularity makes the dependence of B on the five variables very complicated. The value of B approaches being inversely proportional to m under the conditions m≥mfc (the soil capacity) and / or ra/rd→0. The proportional coefficient changes with season and latitude with relatively high values in winter and over the poles; (b) B is nearly independent of ra/rd during the day. The impact of m on B is much larger as compared to that of ra/rd on B, (c) when h increases, the absolute value of B also increases; (d) over bare soil, when the absolute surface net radiation increases, the absolute value of B will increase. The impact of RN on B is larger at night than during the day, and (e) over plant canopy, the singularity and the dependcies of B on m, ra , and h are modified as compared to that over bare soil. Also (i) during the daytime unstable condition, m exerts an even stronger impact on B, at night, however, B changes are weak in response to the change in m; (ii) the value of B is much more sensitive in response to the changes of turbulent intensity; (iii) the B response to the variation of h over a vegetation covered area is weaker; and (iv) the singularity exists at the condition hcp=h instead of αhcb=h as over bare soil, where hcp is defined by Eq.(49). The formulas derived over bare soil also hold the same when applied to free water bodies as long as they are visualized as a special soil in which the volumetric fraction of soil pore is equal to one and are fully filled with water. Finally, the above discussions, are used to briefly study the impact on the thermally induced mesoscale circulations.

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