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Volume 3 Issue 4

Oct.  1986

Article Contents

CALCULATIONS OF ABSORPTION, ATTENUATION, AND BACKSCATTERING OF HAILSTONES AND THEIR POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS


doi: 10.1007/BF02657935

  • The absorption, attenuation, and backscattering of hailstones with various structures are investigated by the model calculations of four kinds of spherical hailstones: pure ice spheres, liquid water-coated ice spheres, spongy ice-coated ice spheres, and all spongy ice spheres. All the results for the wavelength 5.56 cm, including the radar reflectivity factor, absorption factor, and attenuation factor of hailstones with different size distributions are given and discussed in this paper. The possible applications of these character-istics in radar monitoring of hailstones are also discussed. It is shown that in certain conditions, a micro-wave radiometer simultaneously operating with a radar will be helpful to the identification of the hail-bearing area. Finally, the possible influence of hailfall area on the accuracy of the measurements of the rainfall distribution by using a radar-radiometer is simply discussed.
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    [4] QIU Jinhuan, YANG Jingmei, 2008: Absorption Properties of Urban/Suburban Aerosols in China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 25, 1-10.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0001-0
    [5] FENG Qian, CUI Songxue, ZHAO Wei, 2015: Effect of Particle Shape on Dust Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing Calculations Based on MODIS Observations for a Case Study, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 1266-1276.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-4235-3
    [6] DENG Huiping, SUN Shufen, 2010: Extension of TOPMODEL Applications to the Heterogeneous Land Surface, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 164-176.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-8146-z
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    [8] YANG Junli, SHEN Xueshun, 2011: The Construction of SCM in GRAPES and Its Applications in Two Field Experiment Simulations, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 28, 534-550.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-0062-8
    [9] XIE Zhenghui, SU Fengge, LIANG Xu, ZENG Qingcun, HAO Zhenchun, GUO Yufu, 2003: Applications of a Surface Runoff Model with Horton and Dunne Runoff for VIC, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 20, 165-172.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-003-0001-z
    [10] Xiaoxu TIAN, Xiaolei ZOU, Shengpeng YANG, 2018: A Limb Correction Method for the Microwave Temperature Sounder 2 and Its Applications, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 35, 1547-1552.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-018-8092-8
    [11] JIANG Zhina, 2006: Applications of Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation to the Study of the Stability and Sensitivity of the Jovian Atmosphere, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 23, 775-783.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0775-x
    [12] Kun ZHAO, Hao HUANG, Mingjun WANG, Wen-Chau LEE, Gang CHEN, Long WEN, Jing WEN, Guifu ZHANG, Ming XUE, Zhengwei YANG, Liping LIU, Chong WU, Zhiqun HU, Sheng CHEN, 2019: Recent Progress in Dual-Polarization Radar Research and Applications in China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 36, 961-974.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9057-2
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    [15] LI Suwen, LIU Wenqing, XIE Pinhua, LI Ang, QIN Min, DOU Ke, 2007: Measurements of Nighttime Nitrate Radical Concentrations in the Atmosphere by Long-Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 24, 875-880.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0875-2
    [16] Wang Gengchen, Kong Qinxin, 1987: A STUDY ON NO AND NO2 ABSORPTION PROPERTIES BY USING LINE-TUNABLE CO LASER, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 4, 218-224.  doi: 10.1007/BF02677068
    [17] LIU Run, LIU Shaw Chen, Ralph J. CICERONE, SHIU Chein-Jung, LI Jun, WANG Jingli, ZHANG Yuanhang, 2015: Trends of Extreme Precipitation in Eastern China and Their Possible Causes, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 1027-1037.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015- 5002-1
    [18] Poonam Sikka, A. Mary Selvam, A.S. Ramachandra Murty, 1988: POSSIBLE SOLAR INFLUENCE ON ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRIC FIELD, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 5, 217-228.  doi: 10.1007/BF02656783
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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 10 October 1986
Manuscript revised: 10 October 1986
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

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CALCULATIONS OF ABSORPTION, ATTENUATION, AND BACKSCATTERING OF HAILSTONES AND THEIR POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS

  • 1. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing

Abstract: The absorption, attenuation, and backscattering of hailstones with various structures are investigated by the model calculations of four kinds of spherical hailstones: pure ice spheres, liquid water-coated ice spheres, spongy ice-coated ice spheres, and all spongy ice spheres. All the results for the wavelength 5.56 cm, including the radar reflectivity factor, absorption factor, and attenuation factor of hailstones with different size distributions are given and discussed in this paper. The possible applications of these character-istics in radar monitoring of hailstones are also discussed. It is shown that in certain conditions, a micro-wave radiometer simultaneously operating with a radar will be helpful to the identification of the hail-bearing area. Finally, the possible influence of hailfall area on the accuracy of the measurements of the rainfall distribution by using a radar-radiometer is simply discussed.

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