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Observation and Numerical Simulations with Radar and Surface Data Assimilation for Heavy Rainfall over Central Korea


doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-0035-y

  • This study investigated the impact of multiple-Doppler radar data and surface data assimilation on forecasts of heavy rainfall over the central Korean Peninsula; the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (3DVAR) were used for this purpose. During data assimilation, the WRF 3DVAR cycling mode with incremental analysis updates (IAU) was used. A maximum rainfall of 335.0 mm occurred during a 12-h period from 2100 UTC 11 July 2006 to 0900 UTC 12 July 2006. Doppler radar data showed that the heavy rainfall was due to the back-building formation of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). New convective cells were continuously formed in the upstream region, which was characterized by a strong southwesterly low-level jet (LLJ). The LLJ also facilitated strong convergence due to horizontal wind shear, which resulted in maintenance of the storms. The assimilation of both multiple-Doppler radar and surface data improved the accuracy of precipitation forecasts and had a more positive impact on quantitative forecasting (QPF) than the assimilation of either radar data or surface data only. The back-building characteristic was successfully forecasted when the multiple-Doppler radar data and surface data were assimilated. In data assimilation experiments, the radar data helped forecast the development of convective storms responsible for heavy rainfall, and the surface data contributed to the occurrence of intensified low-level winds. The surface data played a significant role in enhancing the thermal gradient and modulating the planetary boundary layer of the model, which resulted in favorable conditions for convection.
  • [1] HOU Tuanjie, Fanyou KONG, CHEN Xunlai, LEI Hengchi, HU Zhaoxia, 2015: Evaluation of Radar and Automatic Weather Station Data Assimilation for a Heavy Rainfall Event in Southern China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 967-978.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-4155-7
    [2] CHU Kekuan, TAN Zhemin, Ming XUE, 2007: Impact of 4DVAR Assimilation of Rainfall Data on the Simulation of Mesoscale Precipitation Systems in a Mei-yu Heavy Rainfall Event, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 24, 281-300.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0281-9
    [3] Ji-Hyun HA, Dong-Kyou LEE, 2012: Effect of Length Scale Tuning of Background Error in WRF-3DVAR System on Assimilation of High-Resolution Surface Data for Heavy Rainfall Simulation, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 29, 1142-1158.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-1183-z
    [4] Jo-Han LEE, Dong-Kyou LEE, Hyun-Ha LEE, Yonghan CHOI, Hyung-Woo KIM, 2010: Radar Data Assimilation for the Simulation of Mesoscale Convective Systems, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 1025-1042.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-9162-8
    [5] XU Zhifang, GE Wenzhong, DANG Renqing, Toshio IGUCHI, Takao TAKADA, 2003: Application of TRMM/PR Data for Numerical Simulations with Mesoscale Model MM5, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 20, 185-193.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-003-0003-x
    [6] Cheng Minghu, He Huizhong, Mao Dongyan, Qi Yanjun, Cui Zhehu, Zhou Fengxian, 2001: Study of 1998 Heavy Rainfall over the Yangtze River Basin Using TRMM Data, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 18, 387-396.  doi: 10.1007/BF02919317
    [7] LIPING LUO, Ming Xue, Xin Xu, Lijuan Li, Qiang Zhang, Ziqi Fan, 2024: Understanding Simulated Causes of Damaging Surface Winds in a Derecho-Producing Mesoscale Convective System near the East China Coast based on Convection-Permitting Simulations, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-024-3314-8
    [8] SUN Jianhua, ZHAO Sixiong, XU Guangkuo, MENG Qingtao, 2010: Study on a Mesoscale Convective Vortex Causing Heavy Rainfall during the Mei-yu Season in 2003, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 1193-1209.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9156-6
    [9] LIU Juanjuan, WANG Bin, WANG Shudong, 2010: The Structure of Background-error Covariance in a Four-dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System: Single-point Experiment, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 1303-1310.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-9067-6
    [10] Hongqin ZHANG, Xiangjun TIAN, Wei CHENG, Lipeng JIANG, 2020: System of Multigrid Nonlinear Least-squares Four-dimensional Variational Data Assimilation for Numerical Weather Prediction (SNAP): System Formulation and Preliminary Evaluation, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 37, 1267-1284.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-020-9252-1
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Manuscript received: 10 May 2011
Manuscript revised: 10 May 2011
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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Observation and Numerical Simulations with Radar and Surface Data Assimilation for Heavy Rainfall over Central Korea

  • 1. Atmospheric Sciences Program, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151--747, Korea,Atmospheric Sciences Program, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151--747, Korea and Atmospheric Sciences Program, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151--747, Korea

Abstract: This study investigated the impact of multiple-Doppler radar data and surface data assimilation on forecasts of heavy rainfall over the central Korean Peninsula; the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (3DVAR) were used for this purpose. During data assimilation, the WRF 3DVAR cycling mode with incremental analysis updates (IAU) was used. A maximum rainfall of 335.0 mm occurred during a 12-h period from 2100 UTC 11 July 2006 to 0900 UTC 12 July 2006. Doppler radar data showed that the heavy rainfall was due to the back-building formation of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). New convective cells were continuously formed in the upstream region, which was characterized by a strong southwesterly low-level jet (LLJ). The LLJ also facilitated strong convergence due to horizontal wind shear, which resulted in maintenance of the storms. The assimilation of both multiple-Doppler radar and surface data improved the accuracy of precipitation forecasts and had a more positive impact on quantitative forecasting (QPF) than the assimilation of either radar data or surface data only. The back-building characteristic was successfully forecasted when the multiple-Doppler radar data and surface data were assimilated. In data assimilation experiments, the radar data helped forecast the development of convective storms responsible for heavy rainfall, and the surface data contributed to the occurrence of intensified low-level winds. The surface data played a significant role in enhancing the thermal gradient and modulating the planetary boundary layer of the model, which resulted in favorable conditions for convection.

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