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Aberson, S. D., 2002:Two years of operational hurricane synoptic surveillance. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 1101-1110. |

Aberson, S. D., 2003:Targeted observations to improve operational tropical cyclone track forecast guidance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1613-1628. |

Chen, B. Y., and M. Mu, 2012:The roles of spatial locations and patterns of initial errors in the uncertainties of tropical cyclone forecasts. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 29( |

Chen, B. Y., M. Mu, and X. H. Qin, 2013:The impact of assimilating dropwindsonde data deployed at different sites on typhoon track forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 2669-2682. |

Chou, K. H., C. C. Wu, P. H. Lin, S. D. Aberson, M. Weissmann, F. Harnisch, and T. Nakazawa, 2011:The impact of dropwindsonde observations on typhoon track forecasts in DOTSTAR and T-PARC. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 1728-1743. |

Duan, W. S., M. Mu, and B. Wang, 2004:Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations as the optimal precursors for El Nino-Southern oscillation events. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23105, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004756. |

Duan, W. S., F. Xue, and M. Mu, 2009:Investigating a nonlinear characteristic of El Niño events by conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation. Atmos. Res., 94, 10-18. |

Duan, W. S., and H. Y. Luo, 2010:A new strategy for solving a class of constrained nonlinear optimization problems related to weather and climate predictability. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 27, 741-749, doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9141-0. |

Elsberry, R. L., and P. A., Harr, 2008:Tropical cyclone structure (TCS08) field experiment science basis, observational platforms, and strategy. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 209-231. |

Franklin, J. L., 2009: 2008 National Hurricane Center forecast verification report. [Available online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/verification] |

Jiang, Z. N., and D. H. Wang, 2010:A study on precursors to blocking anomalies in climatological flows by using conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 1170-1180. |

Jiang, Z. N., and D. H. Wang, 2011:Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations: Behaviour during the evolution of cold vortices over northeast China. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 138, 198-208. |

Jiang, Z. N., M. Mu, and D. H. Wang, 2011:Optimal perturbations triggering weather regime transitions: Onset of blocking and strong zonal flow. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28( |

Lin, I. I., C. C. Wu, I. F. Pun, and D. S. Ko, 2007:Upper-ocean thermal structure and the Western North Pacific category 5 typhoons. Part I: Ocean features and the category 5 typhoons' intensification. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3288-3306. |

Lin, I. I., I. F. Pun, and C. C. Wu, 2008:Upper-ocean thermal structure and the Western North Pacific category 5 typhoons. Part II: Dependence on translation speed. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3744-3757. |

Mu, M., and Z. Y. Zhang, 2006:Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations of a two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1587-1604. |

Mu, M., and Z. N. Jiang, 2011:Similarities between optimal precursors that trigger the onset of blocking events and optimally growing initial errors in onset prediction. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 2860-2877, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-037.1. |

Mu, M., W. S. Duan, and B. Wang, 2003:Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation and its applications. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 10, 493-501. |

Mu, M., L. Sun, and H. A. Dijkstra, 2004:The sensitivity and stability of the ocean's thermohaline circulation to finite-Amplitude perturbations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2305-2315. |

Mu, M., Duan, W. S., and Wang, B., 2007:Season-dependent dynamics of nonlinear optimal error growth and ENSO predictability in a theoretical model. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10113, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006981. |

Mu, M., F. F. Zhou, and H. L. Wang, 2009:A method for identifying the sensitive areas in targeted observations for tropical cyclone prediction: Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1623-1639. |

Palmer, T. N., R. Gelaro, J. Barkmeijer, and R. Buizza, 1998:Singular vectors, metrics, and adaptive observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 633-653. |

Peng, M. S., and C. A. Reynolds, 2006:Sensitivity of tropical cyclone forecasts as revealed by singular vectors. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2508-2528. |

Qin, X. H., and M. Mu, 2011a:A study on the reduction of forecast error variance by three adaptive observation approaches for tropical cyclone prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 2218-2232. |

Qin, X. H., and M. Mu, 2011b:Influence of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations sensitivity on typhoon track forecasts. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 138, 185-197. |

Qin, X. H., W. S. Duan, and M. Mu, 2013:Conditions under which CNOP sensitivity is valid for tropical cyclone adaptive observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 1544-1554. |

Sun, G. D., and M. Mu, 2009:Nonlinear feature of the abrupt transitions between multiple equilibria states of an ecosystem model. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26( |

Sun, G. D., and M. Mu, 2011:Response of a grassland ecosystem to climate change in a theoretical model. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28( |

Sun, G. D., and M. Mu, 2012:Inducing unstable grassland equilibrium states due to nonlinear optimal patterns of initial and parameter perturbations: Theoretical models. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 29( |

Sun, L., M. Mu, D. J. Sun, and X. Y. Yin, 2005:Passive mechanism of decadal variation of thermohaline circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C07025, doi: 10.1029/2005JC002897. |

Sun, G. D., M. Mu, and Y. L. Zhang, 2010:Algorithm studies on how to obtain a conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP). Adv. Atmos. Sci., 27( |

Wang, B., and X. W. Tan, 2009:A fast algorithm for solving CNOP and associated target observation tests. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 23( |

Wang, H. L., M. Mu, and X. Y. Huang, 2011:Application of conditional non-linear optimal perturbations to tropical cyclone adaptive observation using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. Tellus, 63, 939-957. |

Wang, Y. Q., and H. J. Cheng, 2008:A numerical investigation of the eyewall evolution in a Landfalling typhoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 21-40. |

Weng, Y. H., and F. Q. Zhang, 2012:Assimilating airborne doppler radar observations with an ensemble kalman filter for convection-permitting hurricane initialization and prediction: Katrina (2005). Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 841-859. |

Wu, C. C., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 787-790. |

Wu, C. C., K. H. Chou, P. H. Lin, S. D. Aberson, M. S. Peng, and T. Nakazawa, 2007:The impact of dropwindsonde data on typhoon track forecasts in DOTSTAR. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1157-1176. |

Wu, C. C., Y. H. Huang, and G. Y. Lien, 2011:Concentric eyewall formation in typhoon Sinlaku (2008). Part I: Assimilation of T-PARC data based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 506-527. |

Xu, J., and Y. Q., Wang, 2010:Sensitivity of the simulated tropical cyclone inner-core size to the initial vortex size. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 4135-4157. |

Yu, Y. S., W. S. Duan, H. Xu, and M. Mu, 2009:Dynamics of nonlinear error growth and season-dependent predictability of El Niño events in the Zebiak-Cane model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 2146-2160. |

Yu, Y. S., M. Mu, and W. S. Duan, 2012a:Does model parameter error cause a significant "spring predictability barrier" for El Niño events in the Zebiak-Cane model?J. Climate, 25( |

Yu, Y. S., M. Mu, W. S. Duan, and T. T. Gong, 2012b:Contribution of the location and spatial pattern of initial error to uncertainties in El Niño predictions. J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi: 10.1029/2011JC007758. |

Zeng, Z. H., Y. Q. Wang, and C. C. Wu, 2006:Environmental dynamical control of tropical cyclone intensity-An observational study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 38-59. |

Zhou, F. F., and M. Mu, 2011:The impact of verification area design on tropical cyclone targeted observations based on the CNOP method. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28( |

Zhou, F. F., and M. Mu, 2012a:The impact of horizontal resolution on the CNOP and on its identified sensitive areas for tropical cyclone predictions. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 29( |

Zhou, F. F., and M. Mu, 2012b:The time and regime dependencies of sensitive areas for tropical cyclone prediction using the CNOP method. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 29( |