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Preface to the Special Issue "Unified Perspective of Climate Variability and Change"


doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-0003-7

  • IPCC, 2014: Summary for Policymakers. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,Stocker et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 1-30, doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.10.1080/02666280600694342be0de0218f3f2e5068bcf40dc05a7bdehttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.ingentaconnect.com%2Fcontent%2Fmscp%2Fene%2F2007%2F00000018%2FF0020003%2Fart00009http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mscp/ene/2007/00000018/F0020003/art00009The article discusses the author's comment concerning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scientific report for 1990, 1995, 2001, and 2007. The author has expressed disagreement on report citing that it was inappropriate as no model had ever been validated and there seem to be no attempt to do so. He pointed out that the 2007 report was the most distasteful because it has unreliable data, inadequate statistical treatment and gross exaggeration of model capacity.
    Manabe S., R. T. Wetherald, 1975: The effects of doubling the CO2 concentration on the climate of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 3- 15.10.1175/1520-0469(1975)0322.0.CO;20d398911-c74b-4df6-875e-c9c70646a01bd800647c5b3be1afa3cee9cc073346aehttp%3A%2F%2Fadsabs.harvard.edu%2Fabs%2F1975JAtS...32....3Mrefpaperuri:(011d2f756e177b8213823f2834c53685)http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975JAtS...32....3MAbstract An attempt is made to estimate the temperature changes resulting from doubling the present CO 2 concentration by the use of a simplified three-dimensional general circulation model. This model contains the following simplications: a limited computational domain, an idealized topography, no beat transport by ocean currents, and fixed cloudiness. Despite these limitations, the results from this computation yield some indication of how the increase of CO 2 concentration may affect the distribution of temperature in the atmosphere. It is shown that the CO 2 increase raises the temperature of the model troposphere, whereas it lowers that of the model stratosphere. The tropospheric warming is somewhat larger than that expected from a radiative-convective equilibrium model. In particular, the increase of surface temperature in higher latitudes is magnified due to the recession of the snow boundary and the thermal stability of the lower troposphere which limits convective beating to the lowest layer. It is also shown that the doubling of carbon dioxide significantly increases the intensity of the hydrologic cycle of the model.
    Philander S. G., 1990.; El Niño,La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation. Academic Press, San Diego, ix+293 pp.10.1002/j.1477-8696.1990.tb05030.x8090301b18bb15611d73c9b236bbfd8dhttp%3A%2F%2Fonlinelibrary.wiley.com%2Fdoi%2F10.1002%2Fj.1477-8696.1990.tb05030.x%2Fpdfhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1990.tb05030.x/pdfThe San Juan-Chama Project provides water to municipalities and irrigation interests in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico under contracts entered into with the Bureau of Reclamation. Interests representing an endangered fish are now asserting claims for a share of this water. This article addresses the question of whether the terms of the San Juan-Chama contracts provide the Bureau of Reclamation the authority to reallocate contracted San Juan-Chama water for the Rio Grande silvery minnow in light of that agency's obligations under the Endangered Species Act. The article examines the terms of the contracts themselves and concludes that contract language can be construed to provide sufficient authority for reallocation of project water. This conclusion is strengthened if the Endangered Species Act is held to amend the project's authorizing statutes and the contracts. The Ninth Circuit case law supporting this conclusion is examined in the context Of the Middle Rio Grande. The implications of the fractured Winstar opinions on the application of the unmistakable-terms canon of government contract construction are also analyzed. If parties sue to enjoin the government from reallocating water to the silvery minnow and the Ninth Circuit reasoning is adopted, the Endangered Species Act will be held to amend the contracts and permit reallocation. If not, the parties will likely be afforded damages if the government elects to reallocate water for the minnow.
    Wyrtki K., 1975: El Niño-the dynamic response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to atmospheric forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5( 4), 572- 584.c47cc412-b54d-4469-8a2d-12ef04710f01f566ceef6c3c171977672c3b2f2e549dhttp%3A%2F%2Fci.nii.ac.jp%2Fnaid%2F10013127141%2Frefpaperuri:(435f5e0c9edbaff14bfe2e016ff4babe)http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10013127141/El Nino-The dynamic response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to atmospheric forcing. WYRTKI K. J. Phys. Oceanogr 5, 572-584, 1975
    Xie S.-P., Coauthors , 2015: Towards predictive understanding of regional climate change. Nature Clim.Change, 5, 921- 930.10.1038/nclimate2689699c77df5dd25de106d9bd5018958d16http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnclimate%2Fjournal%2Fvaop%2Fncurrent%2Fnclimate2689%2Fmetricshttp://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/nclimate2689/metricsRegional information on climate change is urgently needed but often deemed unreliable. To achieve credible regional climate projections, it is essential to understand underlyingphysical processes, reduce model biases and evaluate their impact on projections, andadequately account for internal variability. In the tropics, where atmospheric internalvariability is small compared to the forced change, advancing our understanding of thelong-term coupling between changes in upper ocean temperature and the atmosphericcirculation will help most to narrow uncertainty. In the extratropics, relatively largeinternal variability introduces substantial uncertainty, while exacerbating risks associated with extreme events. Large ensemble simulations are essential to estimate theprobabilistic distribution of climate change on regional scales. We conclude that thecurrent priority is to understand and reduce uncertainties on scales > 100 km to facilitate assessments at finer scales.
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Preface to the Special Issue "Unified Perspective of Climate Variability and Change"

  • 1. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, USA
  • 2. Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, China

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