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# CAS-ESM2.0 Model Datasets for the CMIP6 Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP)

Fund Project:

This research was supported by the National Major Research High PerformanceComputing Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0200804), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41706036, 41706028, 41975129 and 41630530), the open fund of State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography (Grant No. QNHX2017), and the National Key Scientific and Technological Infrastructure project entitled “Earth System Science Numerical Simulator Facility” (EarthLab) and key operation construction projects of Chongqing Meteorological Bureau-"Construction of chongqing short-term climate numerical prediction platform"

• The second version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Earth System Model (CAS-ESM2.0) is participating in the Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) experiments in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). The purpose of FAFMIP is to understand and reduce the uncertainty of ocean climate changes in response to increased CO2 forcing in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), including the simulations of ocean heat content (OHC) change, ocean circulation change, and sea level rise due to thermal expansion. FAFMIP experiments (including faf-heat, faf-stress, faf-water, faf-all, faf-passiveheat, faf-heat-NA50pct and faf-heat-NA0pct) have been conducted. All of the experiments were integrated over a 70-year period and the corresponding data have been uploaded to the Earth System Grid Federation data server for CMIP6 users to download. This paper describes the experimental design and model datasets and evaluates the preliminary results of CAS-ESM2.0 simulations of ocean climate changes in the FAFMIP experiments. The simulations of the changes in global ocean temperature, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), OHC, and dynamic sea level (DSL), are all reasonably reproduced.
摘要: 中国科学院地球系统模式2.0版（CAS-ESM2.0）参与了第六次国际耦合模式比较计划（CMIP6）并参加了通量距平强迫模式比较计划（FAFMIP）。FAFMIP试验的目的是理解海洋对二氧化碳增加的响应（包括海洋热含量、海洋环流和海表高度等的变化），从而减小海洋模式响应的不确定性。试验包括全球及北大西洋不同的通量异常强迫试验（faf-heat, faf-stress, faf-water, faf-all, faf-passiveheat, faf-heat-NA50pct and faf-heat-NA0pct），模式积分70年。本文介绍了CAS-ESM2.0参加FAFMIP的试验设计并初步评估了模拟结果，包括全球平均的海温、大西洋经圈翻转环流、海洋热含量、动力海表高度等的变化。结果表明，CAS-ESM2.0能够较为合理地模拟出不同通量异常强迫试验下海洋基本变量的变化。该数据集已发布在CMIP6的ESG数据服务器上，可供从事相关研究的科学家下载使用。
• Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of the CAS-ESM2.0 framework.

Figure 2.  Spatial patterns of the surface flux perturbations of (a) momentum (units: 10−3 Pa; colors indicate magnitude of the vector, arrows indicate direction), (b) heat (units: W m−2), and (c) water (units: 10−6 kg m−2 s−1) as added atmospheric forcing in FAFMIP experiments. (d) Spatial pattern of change in the surface heat flux into seawater in the time mean of the final decade of the faf-heat experiment relative to the control (units: W m−2).

Figure 3.  Annual mean time series of the (a) surface air temperature change (units: °C), (b) net heat flux change (units: W m−2), (c) volume mean ocean temperature change (units: °C), and (d) maximum transport change of the AMOC (units: Sv), in six experiments: faf-heat (red line), faf-stress (black line), faf-water (blue line), faf-all (dark green line), faf-heat-NA50pct (orange line) and faf-heat-NA0pct (green line). The dashed black line indicates the faf-passiveheat experiment.

Figure 5.  Spatial patterns of the DSL change (units: m) averaged in the final decade relative to the control in six experiments: (a) faf-heat, (b) faf-water, (c) faf-stress, (d) faf-all, (e) faf-heat-NA50pct, and (f) faf-heat-NA0pct.

Figure 4.  Latitude–depth plots of the zonal mean ocean temperature change (units: °C) in the time mean of the final decade in FAFMIP minus that in the control experiment, in six experiments: (a) faf-heat, (b) faf-water, (c) faf-stress, (d) faf-all, (e) faf-heat-NA50pct, and (f) faf-heat-NA0pct. In addition, (g) and (h) represent added and redistributed portions in the faf-heat experiment, respectively.

Figure 6.  Spatial patterns of the OHC change (units: GJ m−2; vertical integral of the change in the tracer multiplied by the volumetric heat capacity) averaged in the final decade relative to the control in eight experiments. Experiments (a) to (f) is the same as in Fig. 5, while (g) and (h) are experiments that separate the added ($T_{\rm a}^{'}$) and redistributive ($T_{\rm r}^{'}$) components in the heat flux perturbation experiments. Detailed information of these experiments can refer to Section 2.2 (Experimental design).

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## Manuscript History

Manuscript revised: 15 September 2020
Manuscript accepted: 29 October 2020
###### 通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
• 1.

沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

## CAS-ESM2.0 Model Datasets for the CMIP6 Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP)

###### Corresponding author: Xiao DONG, dongxiao@mail.iap.ac.cn;
• 1. International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
• 2. State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China
• 3. State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
• 4. College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
• 5. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China

Abstract: The second version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Earth System Model (CAS-ESM2.0) is participating in the Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) experiments in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). The purpose of FAFMIP is to understand and reduce the uncertainty of ocean climate changes in response to increased CO2 forcing in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), including the simulations of ocean heat content (OHC) change, ocean circulation change, and sea level rise due to thermal expansion. FAFMIP experiments (including faf-heat, faf-stress, faf-water, faf-all, faf-passiveheat, faf-heat-NA50pct and faf-heat-NA0pct) have been conducted. All of the experiments were integrated over a 70-year period and the corresponding data have been uploaded to the Earth System Grid Federation data server for CMIP6 users to download. This paper describes the experimental design and model datasets and evaluates the preliminary results of CAS-ESM2.0 simulations of ocean climate changes in the FAFMIP experiments. The simulations of the changes in global ocean temperature, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), OHC, and dynamic sea level (DSL), are all reasonably reproduced.

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