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Influence of Coastal Marine Boundary Layer Jets on Rainfall in South China

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This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2018YFC1507402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41875055, 42075006, 41861164027), Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects (202002030346, 202002030196), Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST (2018QNRC001)


doi:  10.1007/s00376-021-1195-7

  • Coastal marine boundary layer jets (CMBLJs) play an important role in coastal and inland rainfall in South China. Using 21-yr ERA5 and CMORPH rainfall data, two main CMBLJs are found on the either side of Hainan Island (named as BLJ-WEST vs BLJ-EAST), which are always strengthened jointly. Both the two CMBLJs often occur in the pre-summer rainy season and exhibit evident diurnal cycle with a maximum at night. With the emergence of the CMBLJs, rainfall is significantly enhanced in South China, particularly downstream of each CMBLJ. The response of rainfall to the CMBLJs is mainly attributed to the convergence at the terminus of the CMBLJ, terrain-induced lifting and relevant atmospheric stratification. Coastal rainfall at the downstream of the BLJ-WEST is much weaker than that of the BLJ-EAST because of higher CIN over Beibu Gulf, which is caused by lower temperature lapse rate and adiabatic heating in lee of the Annamite Range. The inland rainfall increases along with the CMBLJs’ intensity, whereas coastal rainfall reaches a maximum in the presence of moderate CMBLJs rather than stronger CMBLJs. Stronger CMBLJs induce stronger dynamic lifting but higher CIN near the coastal area. Additionally, CAPE near the coast does not become highest with strongest CMBLJs, because the CAPE generation contributed by coastal dynamic lifting can be offset by the negative contribution caused by the horizontal advection of the cold and dry air from Indochina Peninsula. Therefore, anomalous dynamic lifting, moisture flux convergence, and CAPE/CIN associated with the CMBLJs’ intensity jointly result in anomalous rainfall.
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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 27 May 2021
Manuscript revised: 27 July 2021
Manuscript accepted: 24 August 2021
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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Influence of Coastal Marine Boundary Layer Jets on Rainfall in South China

Abstract: Coastal marine boundary layer jets (CMBLJs) play an important role in coastal and inland rainfall in South China. Using 21-yr ERA5 and CMORPH rainfall data, two main CMBLJs are found on the either side of Hainan Island (named as BLJ-WEST vs BLJ-EAST), which are always strengthened jointly. Both the two CMBLJs often occur in the pre-summer rainy season and exhibit evident diurnal cycle with a maximum at night. With the emergence of the CMBLJs, rainfall is significantly enhanced in South China, particularly downstream of each CMBLJ. The response of rainfall to the CMBLJs is mainly attributed to the convergence at the terminus of the CMBLJ, terrain-induced lifting and relevant atmospheric stratification. Coastal rainfall at the downstream of the BLJ-WEST is much weaker than that of the BLJ-EAST because of higher CIN over Beibu Gulf, which is caused by lower temperature lapse rate and adiabatic heating in lee of the Annamite Range. The inland rainfall increases along with the CMBLJs’ intensity, whereas coastal rainfall reaches a maximum in the presence of moderate CMBLJs rather than stronger CMBLJs. Stronger CMBLJs induce stronger dynamic lifting but higher CIN near the coastal area. Additionally, CAPE near the coast does not become highest with strongest CMBLJs, because the CAPE generation contributed by coastal dynamic lifting can be offset by the negative contribution caused by the horizontal advection of the cold and dry air from Indochina Peninsula. Therefore, anomalous dynamic lifting, moisture flux convergence, and CAPE/CIN associated with the CMBLJs’ intensity jointly result in anomalous rainfall.

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