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Review of the Researches on Changma and Future Observational Study (KORMEX)


doi: 10.1007/s00376-997-0020-2

  • Changma is the most important supplier of water resource in Korea. However, its interannual variation may cause either floods or droughts time to time in many regions of Korea. A number of studies on Changma have been done in many subjects, such as the on-set and retreat timing, duration of Changma, and its interannual variation, which may cause either wet or dry Changma, and the heavy rainfall phenomena associated with the Changma front. Also, the subjects covered the dynamical situation of Changma compared to that of Baiu and Mei-yu as a part of East Asian monsoon circulation, and relation between Changma and tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) through atmosphere-ocean interaction, etc:A numerical study is presented in this paper to check the teleconnection between the behavior of Changma front and the variation of tropical Pacific SST. The difference in the lower level streamfunction between the El Ni?o event of 1987 and the La Ni?a event of 1988 illustrates that the cross-equatorial and westerly wind crossing over the India and Indo-China peninsula were weak during the summer of 1988 compared to 1987. This may cause the drought of 1988 in East Asia by reducing moisture supply from the Indian Ocean and the south-western Pacific Even though there are numerous research activities on the Changma, our knowledge on the Changma is still lim?ited to explain the mechanism of interannual variation of Changma and to provide a proper prediction of precipita?tion due to both geographical location of Korea and its complex topography. In collaboration with the international field observational projects, such as GAME and SCSMEX, the Korea Monsoon Experiment (KORMEX) has been planned by several scientists in Korea to improve our knowledge on the atmospheric circulation and water cycle relat?ed to the East Asian monsoon and to provide necessary information to predict both short- and long-term variation of rainfall during the Changing season
  • [1] Lu Riyu, Huang Ronghui, Hee-Jeong Baek, Jai-Ho Oh, Baek-Jo Kim, 2001: Associations with the Interannual Variations of Onset and Withdrawal of the Changma, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 18, 1066-1080.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-001-0023-3
    [2] LI Chongyin, HE Jinhai, ZHU Jinhong, 2004: A Review of Decadal/Interdecadal Climate Variation Studies in China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 21, 425-436.  doi: 10.1007/BF02915569
    [3] Zhu Jinhong, Wang Shaowu, 2001: 80a-Oscillation of Summer Rainfall over the East Part of China and East-Asian Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 18, 1043-1051.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0024-y
    [4] Li Chongyin, Sun Shuqing, Mu Mingquan, 2001: Origin of the TBO-Interaction between Anomalous East-Asian Winter Monsoon and ENSO Cycle, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 18, 554-566.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-001-0044-y
    [5] Lin Chunyu, 1985: STABILIZATION OF SUMMER MONSOON IN MIDDLE AND LOWER REACHES OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER AND SEASONAL TRANSITION OF EAST-ASIAN CIRCULATION PATTERN IN EARLY SUMMER, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 2, 376-384.  doi: 10.1007/BF02677254
    [6] HAN Jinping, WANG Huijun, 2007: Interdecadal Variability of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in an AGCM, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 24, 808-818.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0808-0
    [7] Chen Qiying, Yu Yongqiang, Guo Yufu, 1997: Simulation of East Asian Summer Monsoon with IAP CGCM, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 14, 461-472.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-997-0064-3
    [8] Ma Henian, Ding Yihui, 1997: The Present Status and Future of Research of the East Asian Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 14, 125-140.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-997-0015-z
    [9] YAN Hongming, YANG Hui, YUAN Yuan, LI Chongyin, 2011: Relationship Between East Asian Winter Monsoon and Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 28, 1345-1356.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-011-0014-y
    [10] Chen Wen, Hans-F. Graf, Huang Ronghui, 2000: The Interannual Variability of East Asian Winter Monsoon and Its Relation to the Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 17, 48-60.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-000-0042-5
    [11] FENG Juan*, CHEN Wen, 2014: Interference of the East Asian Winter Monsoon in the Impact of ENSO on the East Asian Summer Monsoon in Decaying Phases, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 31, 344-354.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-3118-8
    [12] HUANG Ronghui, ZHOU Liantong, CHEN Wen, 2003: The Progresses of Recent Studies on the Variabilities of the East Asian Monsoon and Their Causes, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 20, 55-69.  doi: 10.1007/BF03342050
    [13] ZENG Gang, Wei-Chyung WANG, SUN Zhaobo, LI Zhongxian, 2011: Atmospheric Circulation Cells Associated with Anomalous East Asian Winter Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 28, 913-926.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-0100-6
    [14] FU Jianjian, LI Shuanglin, 2013: The Influence of Regional SSTs on the Interdecadal Shift of the East Asian Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 30, 330-340.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2062-3
    [15] HUANG Anning, ZHANG Yaocun, GAO Xinfang, 2007: Impacts of Coastal SST Variability on the East Asian Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 24, 259-270.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0259-7
    [16] WU Yunfei, ZHANG Renjian, HAN Zhiwei, ZENG Zhaomei, 2010: Relationship between East Asian Monsoon and Dust Weather Frequency over Beijing, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 1389-1398.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-9181-5
    [17] FENG Jinming, WEI Ting, DONG Wenjie, WU Qizhong, and WANG Yongli, 2014: CMIP5/AMIP GCM Simulations of East Asian Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 31, 836-850.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-3131-y
    [18] CUI Xuedong, GAO Yongqi, SUN Jianqi, 2014: The Response of the East Asian Summer Monsoon to Strong Tropical Volcanic Eruptions, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 31, 1245-1255.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-3239-8
    [19] Zhiyan ZUO, Renhe ZHANG, 2016: Influence of Soil Moisture in Eastern China on the East Asian Summer Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 33, 151-163.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-5024-8
    [20] SUN Li, SHEN Baizhu, GAO Zongting, SUI Bo, Lesheng BAI, Sheng-Hung WANG, AN Gang, LI Jian, 2007: The Impacts of Moisture Transport of East Asian Monsoon on Summer Precipitation in Northeast China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 24, 606-618.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0606-8

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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 10 April 1997
Manuscript revised: 10 April 1997
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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Review of the Researches on Changma and Future Observational Study (KORMEX)

  • 1. METRI, Korea Meteorological Administration, 2 Waryong-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-360, Korea,METRI, Korea Meteorological Administration, 2 Waryong-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-360, Korea,METRI, Korea Meteorological Administration, 2 Waryong-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-360, Korea

Abstract: Changma is the most important supplier of water resource in Korea. However, its interannual variation may cause either floods or droughts time to time in many regions of Korea. A number of studies on Changma have been done in many subjects, such as the on-set and retreat timing, duration of Changma, and its interannual variation, which may cause either wet or dry Changma, and the heavy rainfall phenomena associated with the Changma front. Also, the subjects covered the dynamical situation of Changma compared to that of Baiu and Mei-yu as a part of East Asian monsoon circulation, and relation between Changma and tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) through atmosphere-ocean interaction, etc:A numerical study is presented in this paper to check the teleconnection between the behavior of Changma front and the variation of tropical Pacific SST. The difference in the lower level streamfunction between the El Ni?o event of 1987 and the La Ni?a event of 1988 illustrates that the cross-equatorial and westerly wind crossing over the India and Indo-China peninsula were weak during the summer of 1988 compared to 1987. This may cause the drought of 1988 in East Asia by reducing moisture supply from the Indian Ocean and the south-western Pacific Even though there are numerous research activities on the Changma, our knowledge on the Changma is still lim?ited to explain the mechanism of interannual variation of Changma and to provide a proper prediction of precipita?tion due to both geographical location of Korea and its complex topography. In collaboration with the international field observational projects, such as GAME and SCSMEX, the Korea Monsoon Experiment (KORMEX) has been planned by several scientists in Korea to improve our knowledge on the atmospheric circulation and water cycle relat?ed to the East Asian monsoon and to provide necessary information to predict both short- and long-term variation of rainfall during the Changing season

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