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基于小时降水资料研究北京地区降水的精细化特征

杨萍 肖子牛 石文静

杨萍, 肖子牛, 石文静. 基于小时降水资料研究北京地区降水的精细化特征[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(3): 475-489. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1606.16134
引用本文: 杨萍, 肖子牛, 石文静. 基于小时降水资料研究北京地区降水的精细化特征[J]. 大气科学, 2017, 41(3): 475-489. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1606.16134
Ping YANG, Ziniu XIAO, Wenjing SHI. Fine-Scale Characteristics of Rainfall in Beijing Urban Area Based on a High-Density Autonomous Weather Stations (AWS) Dataset[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(3): 475-489. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1606.16134
Citation: Ping YANG, Ziniu XIAO, Wenjing SHI. Fine-Scale Characteristics of Rainfall in Beijing Urban Area Based on a High-Density Autonomous Weather Stations (AWS) Dataset[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2017, 41(3): 475-489. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1606.16134

基于小时降水资料研究北京地区降水的精细化特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1606.16134
基金项目: 

全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划 2012CB957804

国家自然科学基金项目 41375069

国家自然科学基金项目 41505061

国家自然科学基金项目 41675092

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨萍, 女, 1981年出生, 博士、副研究员, 主要从事极端事件、城市气候方面的研究.E-mail:zz96998@163.com

    通讯作者:

    肖子牛, E-mail:xiaozn@lasg.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P466

Fine-Scale Characteristics of Rainfall in Beijing Urban Area Based on a High-Density Autonomous Weather Stations (AWS) Dataset

Funds: 

National Basic Research Program of China 2012CB957804

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41375069

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41505061

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41675092

  • 摘要: 根据北京全区2007~2014年117个自动气象站逐小时降水资料,在揭示降水总体时空特征的基础上,进一步研究了北京地区各季(以春、夏、秋为主)降水的精细化特征。研究发现:北京全区年均降水量存在两个高值中心(城区和下风方向的降水高值中心),城市热岛效应可能是城区高值中心形成的重要影响因素之一;北京全区降水的季节分布不均,日分布也不均匀;城市化对北京地区降水的影响具有季节差异,夏季短历时和中历时降水在城区和东北部存在显著的大值区,受到城市热岛效应的影响可能较为明显,长历时降水在城区反而相对偏低,而春季城区短、中历时降水并未偏多,长历时降水却在城区出现明显的高值中心;降水日变化季节差异明显,春、秋两季呈现双峰型变化,而夏季呈现单峰型变化,该日变化的特征与全区降水的空间分布格局关系紧密。
  • 图  1  北京地区全区站点使用情况分布。代表站点名称在图中用大写首字母表示,下同

    Figure  1.  The distribution of stations with hourly precipitation observations in Beijing. SY, HD, YQ, FYD, THK, MY, HR, SDZ, PG, CY, CP, ZT, MTG, GXT, SJS, FT, DX, FS, and XYL represent Shunyi, Haidian, Yanqing, Foyeding, Tanghekou, Miyun, Huairou, Shangdianzi, Pinggu, Chaoyang, Changping, Zhaitang, Mentougou, Guanxiangtai, Shijingshan, Fengtai, Daxing, Fangshan, and Xiayunling, repectively, the same below

    图  2  2007~2014年(a)多年平均降水量的空间分布,(b)年均小时累积降水量的日变化特征

    Figure  2.  (a) Spatial distribution of multi-year average precipitation, (b) multi-year average diurnal variation of hourly precipitation during 2007–2004

    图  3  2007~2014年北京地区(a)春季、(b)夏季、(c)秋季平均累积降水总量的空间分布

    Figure  3.  Spatial distributions of accumulated seasonal precipitation in Beijing averaged during 2007–2014: (a) Spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn

    图  4  2007~2014年北京地区平均各季短历时(1~3 h)降水对季节累积降水量贡献率的空间分布:(a)春季;(b)夏季;(c)秋季

    Figure  4.  The contribution of 1–3 h duration rainfall events to the accumulated seasonal precipitation over Beijing averaged during 2007–2014: (a) Spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn

    图  5  2007~2014年北京地区平均各季4~6 h降水对季节累积降水量贡献率的空间分布:(a)春季;(b)夏季;(c)秋季

    Figure  5.  The contribution of 4–6 h duration rainfall events to the accumulated seasonal precipitation over Beijing averaged during 2007–2014: (a) Spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn

    图  6  2007~2014年北京地区平均各季6 h以上持续性降水对季节累积降水量贡献率的空间分布:(a)春季;(b)夏季;(c)秋季

    Figure  6.  The contribution of more than 6 h duration rainfall events to the accumulated seasonal precipitation over Beijing averaged during 2007–2014: (a) Spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn

    图  7  2007~2014年北京全区不同季节平均的小时降水量的日变化特征:(a)春季;(b)夏季;(c)秋季

    Figure  7.  Diurnal variations of mean hourly precipitation in (a) spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn over Beijing averaged during 2007–2014

    图  8  2007~2014年北京全区(a)春季、(b)夏季、(c)秋季平均的各个站点小时累计降水量日峰值的出现时刻。BJT表示北京时间

    Figure  8.  Occurrence time of daily maximum hourly precipitation in different seasons: (a) Spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn. BJT represents Beijing time

    表  1  2007~2014年北京地区季节降水量的总体特征

    Table  1.   General features of seasonal mean accumulated precipitation in Beijing during 2007–2014

    2007~2014年平均累积降水量/mm
    01~24时 01~06时 07~12时 13~18时 19~24时
    春季 67.1 15.2 15.1 16.5 20.3
    夏季 356.5 99.2 58.6 72.5 126.2
    秋季 111.2 36.4 28.0 16.1 30.7
    冬季 4.5 0.7 1.6 1.1 1.2
    全年 539.3 151.5 103.3 106.2 178.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2007~2014年北京地区各季不同持续时间的降水累积量对平均降水总量的贡献率

    Table  2.   The contribution of rainfall events with different durations to total precipitation in the different seasons in Beijing averaged during 2007–2014

    持续性降水贡献率
    短历时(1~3 h) 中历时(4~6 h) 长历时(>6 h)
    全年 37.2% 21.6% 41.2%
    春季 38.0% 19.3% 42.6%
    夏季 44.5% 21.8% 33.8%
    秋季 30.1% 19.0% 50.9%
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-02-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2016-06-27
  • 刊出日期:  2017-05-15

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