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非静力AREM模式设计及其数值模拟Ⅱ:数值模拟试验

程锐 宇如聪 徐幼平 王斌 宋帅 顾春利

程锐, 宇如聪, 徐幼平, 王斌, 宋帅, 顾春利. 非静力AREM模式设计及其数值模拟Ⅱ:数值模拟试验[J]. 大气科学, 2019, 43(1): 1-12. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1712.17201
引用本文: 程锐, 宇如聪, 徐幼平, 王斌, 宋帅, 顾春利. 非静力AREM模式设计及其数值模拟Ⅱ:数值模拟试验[J]. 大气科学, 2019, 43(1): 1-12. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1712.17201
Rui CHENG, Rucong YU, Youping XU, Bin WANG, Shuai SONG, Chunli GU. Design of Non-hydrostatic AREM Model and Its Numerical Simulation Part Ⅱ: Numerical Simulation Experiments[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2019, 43(1): 1-12. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1712.17201
Citation: Rui CHENG, Rucong YU, Youping XU, Bin WANG, Shuai SONG, Chunli GU. Design of Non-hydrostatic AREM Model and Its Numerical Simulation Part Ⅱ: Numerical Simulation Experiments[J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2019, 43(1): 1-12. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1712.17201

非静力AREM模式设计及其数值模拟Ⅱ:数值模拟试验

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1712.17201
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2017YFB1002702

国家自然科学基金项目 91637211

国家自然科学基金项目 61572058

详细信息
    作者简介:

    程锐,男,1975年出生,高工,主要从事数值模式及数值预报应用研究。E-mail: c4rui@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: 456

Design of Non-hydrostatic AREM Model and Its Numerical Simulation Part Ⅱ: Numerical Simulation Experiments

Funds: 

National Key Research and Development Plan 2017YFB1002702

National Natural Science Foundation of China 91637211

National Natural Science Foundation of China 61572058

  • 摘要:程锐等(2018)中,我们完成了非静力AREM(Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model)模式动力框架设计。本文将通过理想和实例试验检验其模拟能力。设计理想试验并通过与国际成熟的中尺度非静力框架比较,直接检验非静力AREM三维动力框架在细致分辨率(约1 km)下的模拟性能。可以看出,非静力AREM与ARPS(Advanced Regional Prediction System)、WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting Model)模拟出类似的积云对流结构及演变特征,从而基本确证了本文发展的非静力框架的正确性。结合原静力平衡模式的初始化和物理参数化过程,形成非静力AREM模式系统。台风实例模拟表明,粗分辨率下静力、非静力AREM模式性能接近;但在高分辨率下,非静力明显优于静力模式。我们还开展了批量降水试验检验,对非静力AREM模式性能进行了进一步的验证。
  • 图  1  对流成熟期过对流中心垂直速度的垂直剖面(单位:m s-1):(a)非静力AREM;(b)ARPS

    Figure  1.  Vertical cross sections of vertical velocity (units: m s-1) along convection center at the mature stage of convection: (a) Non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) ARPS

    图  2  对流成熟期过对流中心散度(单位:10-4 s-1)的垂直剖面:(a)非静力AREM;(b)ARPS

    Figure  2.  Vertical cross sections of divergence (units: 10-4 s-1) along the convection center at the mature stage of convection: (a) Non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) ARPS

    图  3  对流消弱期3 km高度上的流场分布:(a)非静力AREM;(b)ARPS

    Figure  3.  Streamline fields at 3-km height at the dissipative stage of convection: (a) Non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) ARPS

    图  4  对流中心垂直速度(单位:m s-1)的时间演变:(a)非静力AREM;(b)ARPS

    Figure  4.  Time series of vertical velocity (units: m s-1) at the convection center: (a) Non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) ARPS

    图  5  WRF模拟的(a)对流成熟期垂直速度垂直剖面(单位:m s−1)及(b)对流中心垂直速度(单位:m s−1)演变

    Figure  5.  (a) The vertical cross section of vertical velocity (units:m s−1) along the convection center at the mature stage of convection and (b) time series of vertical velocity (units:m s−1) at the convection center simulated by WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model)

    图  6  积分24 h (2004年8月12日00时)的850 hPa垂直速度(单位:cm s-1, 正值表示上升运动)分布:(a)非静力AREM; (b)静力平衡AREM。×表示台风中心, 下同

    Figure  6.  Vertical velocity (units:cm s−1, positive values represent updrafts) distributions at 850 hPa after 24-h simulation (0000 UTC 12 August 2004):(a) Non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) hydrostatic AREM.The sign "×" represents the typhoon center, the same below

    图  7  积分24 h (2004年8月12日00时)过台风中心垂直速度(单位:cm s−1)的垂直剖面:(a)非静力AREM; (b)静力平衡AREM

    Figure  7.  Vertical cross sections of vertical velocity (units:cm s−1) along the typhoon center after 24-h simulation (0000 UTC 12 August 2004):(a) Non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) hydrostatic AREM

    图  8  2004年8月11日00时至12日00时AREM模式模拟的和观测的台风(a)路径及(b)中心海平面气压(单位:hPa)。OBS、AREMV3_8km、AREMV5_8km、AREMV5_15km分别表示观测、8 km(格距)静力平衡、8 km非静力平衡、15 km非静力平衡AREM的模拟结果

    Figure  8.  AREM-simulated and observed typhoon (a) track and (b) sea level pressure (units: hPa) at the typhoon center from 0000 UTC 11 August to 0000 UTC 12 August 2004. OBS, AREMV3_8km, AREMV5_8km, and AREMV5_15km represent observation, 8-km hydrostatic AREM, 8-km non-hydrostatic AREM, and 15-km non-hydrostatic AREM, respectively

    图  9  积分9 h(2004年8月11日09时)的过台风中心涡度(单位:10-4 s-1)经向—垂直剖面:(a)8 km非静力AREM;(b)8 km静力平衡AREM;(c)JRA

    Figure  9.  Latitude–height cross sections of vorticity (units: 10-4 s-1) along the typhoon center after 9-h simulation (0900 UTC 11 August 2004): (a) 8-km non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) 8-km hydrostatic AREM; (c) JRA (Japanese Reanalysis) data

    图  10  积分9 h(2004年8月11日09时)过台风中心垂直速度(单位:m s-1)经向—垂直剖面:(a)8 km非静力AREM;(b)8 km静力平衡AREM;(c)15 km非静力AREM

    Figure  10.  Latitude–height cross sections of vertical velocity (units: m s-1) along the typhoon center after 9-h simulation (0900 UTC 11 August 2004): (a) 8-km non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) 8-km hydrostatic AREM; (c) 15-km non-hydrostatic AREM

    图  11  积分9 h(2004年8月11日0900 UTC)过台风中心水凝物含量(彩色阴影,单位:g kg-1)及环流(黑色带箭头线)经向—垂直剖面:(a)8 km非静力AREM;(b)8 km静力平衡AREM;(c)15 km非静力AREM

    Figure  11.  Latitude–height cross sections of hydrometeors content (shaded, units: g kg-1) and circulation (black lines with arrows) along the typhoon center after 9-h simulation (0900 UTC 11 August 2004): (a) 8-km non-hydrostatic AREM; (b) 8-km hydrostatic AREM; (c) 15-km non-hydrostatic AREM

    图  12  2010年7月长江中下游及华南地区逐日降水的(a)BS评分和(b)TS评分。实线为静力,点线为非静力

    Figure  12.  (a) Bias scores (BS) and (b) threat scores (TS) for daily precipitation forecasts in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South China in July 2010. The solid and dotted lines indicate hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic simulation, respectively

    表  1  非静力AREM与ARPS动力框架试验方案

    Table  1.   Model configuration of non-hydrostatic AREM (Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model) and ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) for dynamical core experiments

    方案描述
    初值特点 水平均一背景场分为21层,从1000 hPa到100 hPa;热泡扰动
    模拟范围 水平范围约为100 km,垂直方向从地表到100 hPa
    模拟分辨率 水平格距约为1 km,垂直方向分为20层
    模拟步长 时步1 s
    模拟时间 运行1800 s
    边界处理 辐射侧边界条件,顶边界刚壁
    地形处理 不考虑地形
    物理过程 不考虑任何物理过程
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  AREM静力与非静力框架试验描述

    Table  2.   Model configuration of non-hydrostatic AREM and hydrostatic AREM for dynamical core experiments

    方案描述
    初值处理 1°×1° NCEP分析场作为初值,分为17层,从1000 hPa到10 hPa
    边界条件 固定侧边界条件,刚体顶边界条件
    模拟范围 纬向105°~145°E,经向5°~45°N,垂向从地表到10 hPa
    模拟分辨率 水平格距约为37 km,垂向分为32层
    模拟步长 时步30 s
    模拟时段 2004年8月11日00时至8月12日00时
    地形处理 不考虑地形
    物理过程 不考虑任何物理过程
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  非静力AREM高分辨率模拟试验方案

    Table  3.   Model configuration for high resolution simulation of non-hydrostatic AREM

    计算方案描述
    初值处理 人造台风初值,分为26层,从1000 hPa到10 hPa
    边界条件 固定侧边界条件,刚体顶边界条件
    模拟范围 纬向115°~135°E,经向15°~35°N,垂向从地表到10 hPa
    模拟分辨率 水平格距约为8 km,垂向分为32层
    模拟步长 时步5 s
    模拟时段 2004年8月11日00时至8月12日00时
    地形处理 考虑实际地形和植被
    物理过程 非局地行星边界层参数化,Wang云微物理参数化,Betts- Miller积云对流调整,简化的地表辐射能量平衡和地表通量计算
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-07-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2018-02-02
  • 刊出日期:  2019-01-15

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