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在线连续流量扩散云室对华北冬季大气冰核的观测分析

毕凯 黄梦宇 马新成 田平 陈羿辰 丁德平

毕凯, 黄梦宇, 马新成, 等. 2020. 在线连续流量扩散云室对华北冬季大气冰核的观测分析[J]. 大气科学, 44(6): 1243−1257 doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1911.19194
引用本文: 毕凯, 黄梦宇, 马新成, 等. 2020. 在线连续流量扩散云室对华北冬季大气冰核的观测分析[J]. 大气科学, 44(6): 1243−1257 doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1911.19194
BI Kai, HUANG Mengyu, MA Xincheng, et al. 2020. Observation and Analysis of Atmospheric Ice-Nucleating Particles in Online Continuous-Flow Diffusion Chamber in Winter in North China [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 44(6): 1243−1257 doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1911.19194
Citation: BI Kai, HUANG Mengyu, MA Xincheng, et al. 2020. Observation and Analysis of Atmospheric Ice-Nucleating Particles in Online Continuous-Flow Diffusion Chamber in Winter in North China [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 44(6): 1243−1257 doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1911.19194

在线连续流量扩散云室对华北冬季大气冰核的观测分析

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1911.19194
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41675138、41775138、41930968、41805114、41805113,国家重点研发计划项目2019YFC1510301,北京市气象局科技项目BMBKJ201701007
详细信息
    作者简介:

    毕凯,男,1986年生,硕士,高级工程师,主要从事大气冰核与人工影响天气研究。E-mail: bikai_picard@vip.sina.com

    通讯作者:

    马新成,E-mail: fellow_007@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P401

Observation and Analysis of Atmospheric Ice-Nucleating Particles in Online Continuous-Flow Diffusion Chamber in Winter in North China

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grants 41675138, 41775138, 41930968, 41805114, 41805113), National Key R&D Program of China (Grant 2019YFC1510301), Science and Technology Project of the Beijing Meteorological Service (Grant BMBKJ201701007)
  • 摘要: 利用国内首台在线连续流量扩散云室,2017年冬季在华北地区高山站开展了大气冰核观测;结合常规气象要素、降水滴谱、气溶胶观测,分析了大气冰核数浓度特征,并对冰核活化参数化方法以及降雪对冰核的影响进行了研究。结果表明:(1)大气冰核在不同时间的浓度差异较大,−20°C时数浓度变化范围为2.50~76.8 L−1,平均值为18.347 L−1;(2)大气冰核浓度随活化温度降低呈指数增加趋势,随过饱和度增加呈指数增加,凝华核化所占比例约为18.64%;(3)大气冰核与粒径大于0.5 μm的气溶胶数浓度的关系可用参数化表示,相关性大于仅基于活化温度建立的参数化公式;(4)降雪过程大气冰核具有先增加后减少的特征。降雪开始后大气冰核数浓度增加,降雪后期系统过境伴随的大风,对气溶胶的清洗作用明显,大气冰核随之减少。本研究为在线连续流量扩散云室类型的冰核观测仪在国内首次使用,所建立的冰核参数化公式有助于华北地区冬季地形云及其降水的微物理特征研究,同时在云模式的发展和人工影响天气研究中也有重要的参考意义。
  • 图  1  闫家坪高山综合观测站(简称闫家坪站)及周边地区地形分布图。五角星代表北京市中心,三角形代表站闫家坪观测站

    Figure  1.  Topography of Yanjiaping station and the surrounding area. The star indicates the center of Beijing City as a reference. The triangle indicates the Yanjiaping station

    图  2  新型在线连续流量扩散云室冰核观测仪(BJ-CFDC):(a)观测仪外观;(b)测量原理图

    Figure  2.  (a) Photo of Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber-Ice Activation Spectrometer (BJ-CFDC) and (b) a schematic of its basic operating principle

    图  3  闫家坪站点气象要素、气溶胶、冰核数浓度时间序列演变:(a)风向;(b)风速;(c)温度;(d)气压;(e)相对湿度;(f)降雪率;(g)气溶胶PM10和PM2.5质量浓度;(h)0.5~20 μm气溶胶数浓度;(i)冰核数浓度(−20°C,5%水面过饱和度)

    Figure  3.  Evolution of ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentration time series with weather elements and aerosols at Yanjiaping station: (a) Wind direction (WD); (b) wind speed (WS); (c) temperature; (d) pressure; (e) relative humidity (RH); (f) snowfall rate (SR); (g) PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration (C); (h) number concentration of aerosols with diameters larger than 500 μm (n); (i) INP number concentration activated at −25°C at 5% supersaturation with respect to water (N)

    图  4  不同活化温度下的冰核数浓度统计特征图

    Figure  4.  Box chart of INP number concentrations at different temperatures

    图  5  大气冰核数浓度随温度变化图及与前人拟合结果的对比图。横坐标为活化温度,纵坐标为冰核数浓度,灰色点为BJ-CFDC单个测量值,黑色为每个活化温度的平均值,红色细线为Fletcher参数化结果,红色粗实线为Meyers参数化结果,红色虚点线为Cooper参数化结果,红色虚线为DeMott参数化结果,蓝色粗实线为游来光和石安英(1964)年参数化结果,蓝色细实线为游来光等(2002)年参数化结果,绿色线为南京地区参数化结果,绿虚线为黄山地区参数化结果,灰色粗实线为比格混合云室测量的北京山区参数化结果,蓝色细虚线为比格混合云室测量的北京城区的参数化结果,黑色粗实线为本文BJ-CFDC测量的北京山区参数化结果

    Figure  5.  INP number concentrations fitting at different temperatures compared with previous results (x-axis: activation temperature; y-axis: INP concentration; gray dots: original CFDC measurements; black dots: mean INP concentrations at each activation temperature; thin red line: Fletcher parameterization; thick red line: Meyers parameterization; red dash-dotted line: Cooper parameterization; red dashed line: DeMott parameterization; thick blue line: Beijing_1964 parameterization by You and Shi (1964); thin blue line: Beijing_2002 parameterization by You et al. (2002); green line: Nanjing parameterization by Nuist; green dashed line: Nuist_HM parameterization at Huangshan by Nuist; thick gray line: Beijing_YJP parameterization at Beijing mountain area measured by Bigg-type chamber; thin blue dashed line: Beijing_BMS parameterization at Beijing urban measured by Bigg-type chamber; thick black line: Beijing_CFDC parameterization measureed in this paper)

    图  6  在−25°C时冰核数浓度随水面过饱和度和冰面过饱和度的变化(Sw为相对水面过饱和度,Sice为相对冰面过饱和度)

    Figure  6.  Evolution of INP number concentration with Sw and Sice at −25°C (Sw and Sice are the supersaturations for water and ice respectively)

    图  7  基于尺度大于0.5 μm的气溶胶数浓度建立起的不同参数化方案的冰核数浓度计算值与观测值的对比图。图中(a–f)分别对应表3中的D10、D15、Jiang_12、Yang_13、Kai_19、Beijing_CFDC建立的参数化方案。横轴为实测值,纵轴为不同参数化方案的计算值。图中实线为1:1相关性直线,不同的颜色代表了不同的活化温度,圆圈的面积差异代表了粒径大于0.5 μm气溶胶的浓度大小差异

    Figure  7.  Measured INP number concentrations compared with predicted INP number concentrations from previous parameterization based on the particle number concentrations for particle diameters larger than 0.5 μm. (a)–(f) are parameterizations from Table 3 including D10, D15, Jiang_12, Yang_13, Kai_19, and Beijing_CFDC, respectively. The solid line shows 1:1 correlation. The colors in the figure indicate different temperatures. The areas of the circles indicate the relative differences in the particle number concentrations for particle diameters larger than 0.5 μm

    图  8  闫家坪站降雪前后气象要素、气溶胶和冰核数浓度时间序列:(a)风向;(b)风速;(c)降雪量;(d)降雪滴谱(Ns为分档雪粒子数浓度,D为雪粒子直径);(d)气溶胶质量浓度;(e)0.5 μm以上气溶胶数浓度;(f)冰核数浓度(−25°C、5%水面过饱和度)

    Figure  8.  Evolution of INP number concentrations with weather elements and aerosols before and after snowfall event at Yanjiaping station: (a) Wind direction; (b) wind speed; (c) snowfall rate; (d) aerosol mass concentration (PM10, PM2.5); (e) aerosol number concentration for particle diameters larger than 0.5 μm; (f) INP concentration activated at −25°C at 5% super saturation of water

    图  9  降雪前、降雪中和降雪后大气冰核在不同温度的数浓度

    Figure  9.  INP number concentrations at different temperatures before snowfall, during snowfall event, and after snowfall

    表  1  公式(1)中大气冰核数浓度与温度关系的拟合参数

    Table  1.   Parameters of relationship between INP number concentration and temperature in equation(1)

    参数化名称观测地点AB文献来源
    Fletcher澳大利亚0.0000106Fletcher, 1962
    Meyers美国0.060.262Meyers et al., 1992
    Cooper法国0.0050.304Cooper, 1980
    DeMott全球综合0.1170.125DeMott et al., 2010
    Beijing,1964北京城区0.002540.389游来光和石安英, 1964
    Beijing,2002北京城区0.0340.395游来光等, 2002
    Nuist南京0.00490.388杨磊等, 2013a
    Nuist_HM黄山0.00460.388苏航等, 2014
    Beijing_YJP华北山区0.0210.293Bi et al., 2018
    Beijing_BMS北京城区0.000140.546Bi et al., 2018
    Beijing_CFDC华北山区0.1630.225本文
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  公式(2)中大气冰核与过饱和度关系的参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of relationship between INP number concentration and supersaturation in equation(2)

    参数化名称活化温度AB
    水面过饱和度(Sw−25°C10.4360.336
    冰面过饱和(Sice−25°C0.0070.264
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  大气冰核与温度、气溶胶浓度参数化方案

    Table  3.   Parameterization scheme of INP with function T and aerosols

    参数化名称参数化公式与本文数据相关性(Pearson 相关系数)观测地点文献来源
    D10$ {N}_{T}=0.0000594\times {(-T)}^{3.33}\times {{n}_{0.5}}^{(-0.0264\times T+0.0033)} $0.838全球多站平均DeMott et al., 2010
    D15$ {N}_{T}={{n}_{0.5}}^{1.25}\times {\rm{e}}^{(-0.46\times T-11.6)} $0.798撒哈拉沙漠沙尘DeMott et al., 2015
    Jiang_12$ {N}_{T}=5.607\times {10}^{-12}\times {(-T)}^{8.721}\times {{n}_{0.5}}^{(0.019\times T+0.579)} $0.583黄山蒋惠等,2016
    Yang_13$ {N}_{T}=2.84\times {10}^{-5}\times {(-T)}^{2.39}\times {{n}_{0.5\sim 10}}^{(-0.06\times T-0.644)} $0.815南京杨磊等,2013b
    Kai_19公式(3)0.839华北山区本文
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-07-26
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