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一次新疆伊犁河谷特大暴雨过程的环境场及不稳定条件分析

黄昕 周玉淑 冉令坤 KALIMUllah 曾勇

黄昕, 周玉淑, 冉令坤, 等. 2021. 一次新疆伊犁河谷特大暴雨过程的环境场及不稳定条件分析[J]. 大气科学, 45(1): 148−164 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1912.19219
引用本文: 黄昕, 周玉淑, 冉令坤, 等. 2021. 一次新疆伊犁河谷特大暴雨过程的环境场及不稳定条件分析[J]. 大气科学, 45(1): 148−164 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1912.19219
HUANG Xin, ZHOU Yushu, RAN Lingkun, et al. 2021. Analysis of the Environmental Field and Unstable Conditions on A Rainstorm Event in the Ili Valley of Xinjiang [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(1): 148−164 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1912.19219
Citation: HUANG Xin, ZHOU Yushu, RAN Lingkun, et al. 2021. Analysis of the Environmental Field and Unstable Conditions on A Rainstorm Event in the Ili Valley of Xinjiang [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(1): 148−164 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1912.19219

一次新疆伊犁河谷特大暴雨过程的环境场及不稳定条件分析

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1912.19219
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2018YFC1507104,国家自然科学基金项目41661144024,中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所专项资金项目IDM2019007,巴基斯坦自然科学基金项目PSF/NSFC- Earth/C-COMSATS-lsb (07),新疆维吾尔自治区引进高层次人才天池计划项目(2019)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄昕,女,1993年出生,博士研究生,主要从事暴雨中尺度过程机理和诊断分析。E-mail: huangxin@mail.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    周玉淑,E-mail: zys@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P458

Analysis of the Environmental Field and Unstable Conditions on A Rainstorm Event in the Ili Valley of Xinjiang

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program (Grant 2018YFC1507104), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41661144024),Special Fund Project of Urumqi Institute of Desert Meteorology (Grant IDM2019007), Pakistan Science Foundation (Grant PSF/NSFC-Earth/C-COMSATS-lsb (07)), Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Tianchi Project for Introducing High-level Talents (2019)
  • 摘要: 伊犁河谷是新疆地区暴雨多发且暴雨强度最强的地区。本文以该地区的一次特大暴雨过程为例,利用观测资料以及WRF高分辨率数值模拟结果对该次暴雨过程的环流背景及不稳定条件进行了分析。结果表明:(1)此次降水过程发生在对流层高层南亚高压“双体型”,中层中高纬度“两脊一槽”以及两个中亚低涡发展移动的环流形势下。在伊犁河谷特殊的向西开口的喇叭口地形作用下,中心位于哈萨克斯坦的中亚低涡导致伊犁河谷低层为偏西风,中心位于塔里木盆地的中亚低涡使得伊犁河谷中层为偏东风,导致伊犁河谷内中低层水平风的垂直切变增强;伊犁河谷内,地形及哈萨克斯坦中亚低涡环流的共同作用形成了低空辐合线,辐合线附近形成的辐合区正好与高空急流辐散区垂直叠加,引发河谷内的上升运动增强。低层西风将水汽输送进河谷,并在河谷内迎风坡附近堆积,上升运动增强后导致河谷内堆积的水汽得以抬升。(2)WRF模拟结果分析显示,散度分布、垂直风切变、水汽及热力层结分布等对降水产生均有重要贡献。通过对湿位涡垂直及水平分量的分析得出热力层结影响的对流不稳定对前期降水的产生有影响,同时,垂直风切变影响的对称不稳定对降水增强维持有重要作用。位势散度分析进一步指示出整个降水区低层的对流不稳定主要是由于位势散度的垂直切变部分造成,而位势散度的散度部分能加强河谷内小地形背风坡处的对流不稳定,说明整个降水演变过程中,动热力因子的相互作用共同影响了降水强度和落区。
  • 图  1  2015年6月(a)26日12:00至27日00:00 12 h国家级地面站累积降水量(彩色圆点,单位:mm)分布,加粗实线内打黑点区域表示地形高度大于3000 m;(b)26日12:00至27日02:00国家级地面站巩留站观测的逐时雨量(单位:mm)

    Figure  1.  (a) 12 h accumulated precipitation from national surface weather station observations from 1200 UTC 26 Jun to 0000 UTC 27 Jun 2015 (colour spots; units: mm). The black spotted area inside the bold solid linedenotes the terrain (units: m); (b) hourly precipitation from national surface weather station observations from 1200 UTC 26 Jun to 0200 UTC 27 Jun 2015 (units: mm)

    图  2  2015年6月26日12:00 ERA-Interim再分析资料(a)500 hPa位势高度(实线,单位:gpm)、温度(虚线,单位:°C);(b)图2a中黑框区域内500 hPa位势高度(实线,单位:gpm)、温度(虚线,单位:°C)、风场(风向标,单位:m s−1);(c)700 hPa位势高度(实线,单位:gpm)、温度(虚线,单位:°C);(d)图2c中黑框区域内700 hPa位势高度(实线,单位:gpm)、温度(虚线,单位:°C)、风场(风向标,单位:m s−1);(e)200 hPa辐散场(阴影,单位:10−5 s−1)、风场(风向标,单位:m s−1)、风速(实线,单位:m s−1);(f)850 hPa风场(矢量箭头,单位:m s−1)、比湿(阴影,单位:g kg−1)。图中黑框区域表示研究区域,D代表中亚低涡的位置,G代表南亚高压位置,黑色粗线内的打点区域表示高于3000 m的地形

    Figure  2.  (a) Geopotential height (solid lines, units: gpm) and temperature (dashed lines, units: °C) at 500 hPa, derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis data; (b) geopotential height (solid lines, units: gpm), temperature (dashed lines, units: °C), and wind bars (units: m s−1) at 500 hPa; (c) geopotential height (solid lines, units: gpm) and temperature (dashed lines, units: °C) at 700 hPa; (d) geopotential height (solid lines, units: gpm), temperature (dashed lines, units: °C), and wind bars (units: m s−1) at 700 hPa. (d) Divergence (shaded, units: 10−5 s−1), wind bars (units: m s−1), and wind speed (solid lines, units: m s−1) at 200 hPa; (e) wind vector (units: m s−1) and specific humidity (shaded, units: g kg−1) at 850 hPa, at 1200 UTC 26 Jun 2015. The black boxes indicate the location of the study area. The “D” labels indicate the locations of the central Asian vortexes, and the “G” labels indicate the locations of the South Asian high. The dotted area inside the thick black lines indicate a terrain above 3000 m

    图  3  模式模拟区域(阴影表示地形高度,单位:m),五角星表示伊犁河谷的位置

    Figure  3.  Model domains. The shading denotes the terrain (units: m), and the star denotes the location of the Ili Valley

    图  4  2015年6月26日17:00~22:00(a)降水融合资料与(b)WRF模拟的 6 h累积降水分布情况(阴影,单位:mm);2015年6月26日19:00(c)降水融合资料与(d)WRF模拟的1 h累积降水分布情况(阴影,单位:mm)以及(e)FY-2D卫星逐时TBB观测资料(阴影,单位:°C)

    Figure  4.  The distribution of 6-h accumulated precipitation (shaded, units: mm) from (a) merged precipitation data and (b) WRF simulation from 1700 UTC to 2200 UTC 26 Jun 2015; the distribution of 1-h accumulated precipitation (shaded, units: mm) from (c) merged precipitation data and (d) WRF simulation, and (e) TBB (Black-Body Temperature) from the FY-2E satellite hourly observations (shaded, units: °C) at 1900 UTC 26 Jun 2015

    图  5  2015年6月(a)26日12:00~20:00巩留县附近研究区域内观测(实线)与WRF模拟(虚线)的平均降水量(单位:mm)时间序列;(b)26日12:00至27日02:00巩留观测站(43.47°N,82.23°E)实况降水(实线)与WRF模拟的巩留代表区域(43.55°~43.6°N,81.9°~82.0°E)区域平均降水(虚线)的时间序列;27 日00:00伊宁站(c)实况与(d)模拟探空曲线,其中粗实线表示环境温度曲线,细实线表示环境露点温度曲线

    Figure  5.  (a) Time series of regional average precipitation (units: mm) in the study area near Gongliu County on the basis of APCP data (solid line) and WRF simulation data (dotted line) from 1200 UTC to 2000 UTC 26 Jun 2015; (b) time series of precipitation from the Gongliu national surface weather station (solid line) and regional average precipitation in the Gongliu representative area on the basis of WRF simulation data (dotted line) from 1200 UTC 26 Jun to 0200 UTC 27 Jun, 2015; (c) observed and (d) simulated sounding curve at Yining Station at 0000 UTC 27 Jun 2015, the thick solid line indicates the ambient temperature curve, and the thin solid line indicates the environmental dew point temperature curve

    图  6  2015年6月26日12:00~23:00WRF模拟的巩留代表区域(43.55°~43.65°N,81.9°~82.05°E)区域平均:(a)散度(阴影,单位:10−3 s−1)、垂直风速(矢量箭头)以及1 h累积降水量(绿色粗实线,单位:mm);(b)相当位温(阴影,单位:K)、比湿(黑色实线,单位:g kg−1)、水平风速(风向标,单位:m s−1)以及1 h累积降水量(绿色粗实线,单位:mm)

    Figure  6.  Regional (43.55°–43.6°N, 81.9°–82.0° E) averages from 1200 UTC to 2300 UTC 26 Jun 2015 from WRF simulation: (a) Divergence (shaded, units: 10−3 s−1), vertical wind vector (units: m s−1), and 1 h accumulated precipitation (green thick solid line); (b) equivalent temperature (shaded, units: K), specific humidity (black solid line, units: g kg−1), and 1 h accumulated precipitation (green thick solid line)

    图  7  2015年6月26日(a、e、i)16:00、(b、f、j)17:30、(c、g、k)18:00和(d、h、l)19:30 沿图4d黑色细实线CD湿位涡MPV(左列彩色阴影)、MPV垂直分量MPV1(中间列彩色阴影)、MPV水平分量MPV2(右列彩色阴影)的纬向—垂直剖面(单位:PVU,1 PVU=10−6 m2 K s−1 kg−1)。黑色阴影区为地形,灰色柱状图表示30 min累积降水,五角星表示巩留县大致的位置,下同

    Figure  7.  Vertical cross sections of (a–d) MPV (moist potential vorticity; colour shaded, units: PVU, 1 PVU=10−6 m2 K s−1 kg−1), (e–h) MPV1 (colour shaded, units: PVU), and (i–l) MPV2 (colour shaded, units: PVU) along the line CD (shown in Fig. 4d) at (a, e, i) 1600 UTC, (b, f, j) 1730 UTC, (c, g, k) 1800 UTC, and (d, h, l) 1930 UTC 26 Jun 2015. The gray bar denotes 30 min accumulated precipitation, the black shaded denotes the terrain, and the star denotes the location of the Gongliu County, the same below

    图  8  2015年6月26日(a)16:00、(b)17:30、(c)18:00和(d)19:30沿图4d黑色细实线CD相当位温(等值线,单位:K)以及相当位温垂直梯度(彩色阴影,单位:10−3 K km−1)的纬向—垂直剖面

    Figure  8.  Vertical cross sections of equivalent temperature (contour lines, units: K) and the vertical gradient of equivalent temperature (colour shaded, units: 10−3 K km−1) along the line CD (shown in Fig. 4d) at (a) 1600 UTC, (b) 1730 UTC, (c) 1800 UTC, and (d) 1930 UTC 26 Jun 2015

    图  9  2015年6月26日(a、e、i)16:00;(b、f、j)17:30;(c、g、k)18:00;(d、h、l)19:30沿图4d黑色细实线CD位势散度m(彩色阴影,单位:10−6 K m−1 s−1)、m的分量$ {m}_{\rm{bc}} $(彩色阴影,单位:10−6 K m−1 s−1)、m的分量$ {m}_{\rm{bt}} $(彩色阴影,单位:10−6 K m−1 s−1)的纬向—垂直剖面

    Figure  9.  Vertical cross sections of (a–d) m (potential divergence; colour shaded, units: 10−6 K m−1 s−1), (e–h) $ {m}_{\rm{bc}} $ (colour shaded, units: 10−6 K m−1 s−1), and (i–l) $ {m}_{\rm{bt}} $ (colour shaded, units: 10−6 K m−1 s−1) along the line CD (shown in Fig. 4d) at (a, e, i) 1600, (b, f, j) 1730 UTC, (c, g, k) 1800 UTC, and (d, h, l) 1930 UTC 26 Jun 2015

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-09-24
  • 录用日期:  2019-12-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-04-27
  • 刊出日期:  2021-01-19

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