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太行山东麓层状云微物理特征的飞机观测研究

杨洁帆 胡向峰 雷恒池 段英 吕峰 赵利伟

杨洁帆, 胡向峰, 雷恒池, 等. 2021. 太行山东麓层状云微物理特征的飞机观测研究[J]. 大气科学, 45(1): 88−106 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19202
引用本文: 杨洁帆, 胡向峰, 雷恒池, 等. 2021. 太行山东麓层状云微物理特征的飞机观测研究[J]. 大气科学, 45(1): 88−106 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19202
YANG Jiefan, HU Xiangfeng, LEI Hengchi, et al. 2021. Airborne Observations of Microphysical Characteristics of Stratiform Cloud Over Eastern Side of Taihang Mountains [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(1): 88−106 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19202
Citation: YANG Jiefan, HU Xiangfeng, LEI Hengchi, et al. 2021. Airborne Observations of Microphysical Characteristics of Stratiform Cloud Over Eastern Side of Taihang Mountains [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(1): 88−106 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19202

太行山东麓层状云微物理特征的飞机观测研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.19202
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFC1507902,河北省“十三五”气象重点工程——云水资源开发利用工程的示范项目“太行山东麓人工增雨防雹作业技术试验” HBRYWCSY-2017,国家自然科学基金项目 41875172
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨洁帆,男,1981年出生,博士,副研究员,主要从事云降水物理研究。E-mail: yjf@mail.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    胡向峰,E-mail: huxf2009@163.com

  • 中图分类号: X426

Airborne Observations of Microphysical Characteristics of Stratiform Cloud Over Eastern Side of Taihang Mountains

Funds: National Key R&D Program of China (Grant 2018YFC1507902), The 13th Five-Year Project for Demonstration Experiment of Cloud Water Resources Exploitation, Precipitation Enhancement and Hail Suppression in Eastern Taihang Mountain, Hebei Province (Grant HBRYWCSY-2017), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41875172)
  • 摘要: 本文利用“太行山东麓人工增雨防雹作业技术试验”的飞机和地面雷达观测数据,重点研究分析了2018年5月21日一次典型西风槽天气系统影响下的层状云微物理特征。结果表明,−5°C层的过冷水含量低于0.05 g m−3,冰粒子数浓度量级101~102 L−1。冰粒子数浓度高值区主要以针状和柱状冰晶为主。这可能低层是Hallett-Mossop机制和其他冰晶繁生机制共同作用下所产生的冰晶碎片在冰面过饱和条件下凝华增长所形成的。冰粒子数浓度低值区的冰晶形状基本以片状或枝状为主。−5°C层的冰雪晶增长主要以凝华和聚并增长为主,凇附过程很弱。零度层附近云水含量峰值区的液态水占比达到70%以上。云水含量峰值区的粒子主要以直径10~50 μm的云滴为主,伴随着少量聚合状冰晶。零度层其他区域的过冷水含量维持在0.05 g m−3左右,冰晶形态主要以聚合状、凇附状及霰粒子为主。液水层则主要以球形液滴及半融化状态的冰粒子为主。垂直探测表明:零度层以上的冰雪晶数浓度呈现随高度递增的趋势。在发展稳定的层状云内,混合层的过冷水含量很低,冰粒子主要通过凝华和聚并过程增长,云体冰晶化程度较高。而在发展较为旺盛的层状云区里过冷水含量也较高,大量液滴的存在也表明混合层冰-液相之间的转化不充分。不同温度层的粒子谱显示,冷水含量高值区的冰粒子平均浓度比过冷水低值区高,但平均直径比过冷水低值区小。
  • 图  1  观测区域(黑色矩形)和设备分布(星号),阴影:地形高度(单位:m)

    Figure  1.  Schematic of the observation region (black rectangle) and facility locations (asterisk), shading area: terrain height (units: m)

    图  2  2018年5月21日20时(北京时,下同)欧洲中期天气预报中心再分析资料(a)500 hPa和(b)850 hPa位势高度(黑色等值线)、温度(红色等值线,单位:°C)、风场(箭头)及风云2F卫星VISSR反演云顶亮温(阴影,单位:K,简称CTT)分布

    Figure  2.  Geopotential height (black contour line), temperature (red contour line), and wind field data reanalysed by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts ERA-interim and Cloud Top Temperature (CTT, units: K) retrieved by the FY2F satellite VISSR at 2000 BT 21 May 2018: (a) 500 hPa; (b) 850 hPa

    图  3  2018年5月21日20时邢台探空曲线(蓝色实线代表露点廓线,黑色实线代表温度廓线,红色虚线代表状态曲线)

    Figure  3.  Soundings at Xingtai station at 2000 BT 21 May 2018 (blue solid line indicates dewpoint profile; black solid line indicates temperature profile; red dashed line represents condition curve)

    图  4  2018年5月21日飞行轨迹(红色实线,AB和CD代表垂直探测区域),石家庄S波段雷达0.5°仰角反射率(阴影)分布以及SA雷达(黑色圆点)、机场位置(黑色矩形)

    Figure  4.  Flight path (red lines, AB and CD indicate vertical observation areas) on 21 May 2018, radar reflectivity measured by Shijiazhuang S-band radar at an elevation of 0.5° (shading area), black dots indicates location of SA radar and black rectangle indicates airport

    图  5  2018年5月21日飞行高度随时间变化(AB、CD代表垂直探测,DE、FG、HI分别代表在不同高度层的水平探测),BT:北京时

    Figure  5.  Flight height variations with time on 21 May 2018 (AB and CD represent vertical observations; DE, FG, and HI represent horizontal observations at different heights). BT: Beijing time

    图  6  2018年5月21日5600 m高度的飞行轨迹(红色实线,图5中DE)对应的S波段雷达反射率剖面(观测时间:21:33~22:01;温度范围:−5.1°C~−4.9°C)

    Figure  6.  Cross section of S band radar reflectivity overlapped by flight path (red line) with horizontal observations performed at 5600-m level (DE in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018 (Observation from 2133 BT to 2201 BT; temperature: −5.1°C– −4.9°C)

    图  7  2018年5月21日飞机5600 m(图5中DE)微物理量的水平分布特征:(a)总水含量及温度;(b)Hotwire、Nevzorov含水量仪测量的液态水含量;(c)CDP、CIP和CIP(D>100 μm)粒子数浓度;(d)雷达反射率(R);(e)CDP粒子谱分布;(f)CIP粒子谱分布(D >100 μm)

    Figure  7.  Microphysical characteristics recorded by aircraft with horizontal observations at a height of 5600 m (DE in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018: (a) Total water content (TWC); (b) liquid water content (LWC) by Hotwire and Nevzorov sensor; (c) number concentrations by CDP (Cloud droplet probe), CIP (Cloud imaging probe), and CIP (D>100 μm); (d) radar reflectivity (R); (e) size distribution of CDP; (f) size distribution of CIP (D > 100 μm)

    图  8  2018年5月21日5600 m平飞阶段(图5中DE)观测到的CPI 粒子图像

    Figure  8.  CPI images obtained while horizontal observations were performed at 5600-m level (DE in Fig.5) on May 21 2018

    图  9  2018年5月21日4300 m高度的飞行轨迹(红色实线,图5中FG)对应的S波段雷达反射率剖面(观测时间:22:29~22:36;温度范围:−0.5°C~0.5°C)

    Figure  9.  Cross section of S band radar reflectivity overlapped by flight path (red line) with horizontal observations performed at 4300 m (FG in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018 (Observation from 2229 to 2236 BT; temperature: −0.5°C–−05°C)

    图  11  2018年5月21日4300 m(图5中FG)平飞阶段观测到的CPI 粒子图像

    Figure  11.  CPI images with horizontal observations performed at 4300-m level (FG in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018

    图  10  2018年5月21日飞机4300 m(图5中FG)微物理量的水平分布特征:(a)总水含量及温度;(b)Hotwire、Nevzorov含水量仪测量的液态水含量;(c)CDP、CIP和CIP(D>100 μm)粒子数浓度;(d)雷达反射率(R);(e)CDP粒子谱分布;(f)CIP粒子谱分布(D >100 μm)

    Figure  10.  Microphysical characteristics recorded by aircraft with horizontal observations at a height of 4300 m (FG in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018: (a) Total water content (TWC); (b) liquid water content (LWC) by Hotwire and Nevzorov sensor; (c) number concentrations of CDP (Cloud droplet probe),CIP (Cloud imaging probe) and CIP (D>100 μm); (d) radar reflectivity (R); (e) size distribution of CDP; (f) size distribution of CIP (D>100 μm)

    图  12  2018年5月21日3000 m高度的飞行轨迹(红色实线,图5中HI)对应的S波段雷达反射率剖面(观测时间:22:47~22:56;温度范围:5.4°C~5.6°C)

    Figure  12.  Cross section of S band radar reflectivity overlapped by flight path (red line) with horizontal observations performed at 3000-m level(HI in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018 (Observations from 2247 to 2256, BT; temperature: 5.4°C–5.6°C)

    图  13  2018年5月21日飞机3000 m(图5中HI)微物理量的水平分布特征:(a)总含水量及温度;(b)Hotwire、Nevzorov含水量仪测量的液态水含量;(c)CDP、CIP和CIP(D>100 μm)粒子数浓度;(d)雷达反射率(R);(e)CDP粒子谱分布;(f)CIP粒子谱分布(D>100 μm)

    Figure  13.  Microphysical characteristics recorded by aircraft with horizontal observations at a height of 3000 m (HI in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018: (a) Total water content (TWC); (b) liquid water content (LWC) by Hotwire and Nevzorov sensor; (c) number concentrations of CDP (Cloud droplet probe),CIP (Cloud imaging probe) and CIP(D>100 μm); (d) radar reflectivity (R); (e) size distribution of CDP; (f) size distribution of CIP (D> 100 μm)

    图  14  2018年5月21日3000 m(图5中HI)平飞阶段观测到的CPI 粒子图像

    Figure  14.  CPI images with horizontal observations performed at 3000-m level (HI in Fig.5) on 21 May 2018

    图  15  2018年5月21日20:30~20:36飞机在AB区(图5中AB)盘旋上升飞行轨迹(黑色实线)与雷达回波分布(阴影区域)以及典型CPI粒子图像

    Figure  15.  Cross sections of radar reflectivity (shading area) overlapped by flight path (black line) during spiral ascent in AB area from 2030 BT to 2036 BT on 21 May 2018 and typical particle images collected by CPI(Cloud particle imager)

    图  16  2018年5月21日2023~20:41飞机在AB区盘旋上升探测:(a)环境温度;(b)液态水含量;(c)云滴及冰雪晶数浓度(蓝色点代表CDP,红色点代表CIP);(d)云滴谱;(e)冰雪晶粒子谱(前3档数据剔除)

    Figure  16.  Data from airborne instruments during spiral ascent in AB area from 2023 BT to 2041 BT on 21 May 2018: (a) Temperature; (b) LWC; (c) particle number concentrations (blue points are from CDP, red points from CIP); (d) size distribution of cloud droplets measured by CDP; (e) size distributions of large particles measured by CIP (the data of first three bins removed)

    图  17  2018年5月21日21:18~21:24飞机在CD区(图5中CD)盘旋上升飞行轨迹(黑色实线)与雷达回波分布(阴影区域)以及典型CPI粒子图像

    Figure  17.  Cross sections of radar reflectivity (shading area) overlapped by flight path (black line) during spiral ascent in CD area (CD in Fig.5) from 2118 BT to 2124 BT on 21 May 2018 and typical particle images collected by CPI(Cloud particle imager)

    图  18  2018年5月21日21:13~2133飞机在CD区盘旋上升探测:(a)环境温度;(b)液态水含量;(c)云滴及冰雪晶数浓度(蓝色点代表CDP,红色点代表CIP);(d)云滴谱;(e)冰雪晶粒子谱(前3档数据剔除)

    Figure  18.  Data from airborne instruments during spiral ascent in CD area from 2113 BT to 2133 BT on 21 May 2018: (a) Temperature, (b) LWC, (c) particle number concentrations (blue points from CDP, red from CIP), (d) size distribution of cloud droplets measured by CDP, and (e) size distributions of large particles measured by CIP (the data of first three bins removed)

    图  19  2018年5月21日AB和CD区不同温度层的粒子平均谱:(a)0°C~5°C;(b)−5°C~0°C

    Figure  19.  Average spectra of particles in different temperature layers within AB and CD regions on 21 May 2018: (a) 0°C–5°C; and (b) −5°C–0°C

    表  1  机载云微物理探测系统及主要参数

    Table  1.   Cloud microphysical detection system and main parameters

    探头名称设备厂家测量范围分辨率用途
    被动腔气溶胶分光仪PCASP-100X(Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe)DMT30通道,0.1~3 μm0.1 μm用于大气气溶胶粒子谱的监测。
    快速云滴谱探头FCDP(Fast Cloud Droplet Probe)SPEC21通道,2~50 μm3 μm云粒子谱
    云滴谱探头CDP(Cloud Droplet Probe)DMT30通道,2~50 μm云粒子谱
    二维冰晶粒子探头CIP(Cloud Imaging Probe)DMT62通道,25~1550 μm25 μm用于取得高清晰云冰雪晶粒子谱及粒子二维图像。
    二维降水粒子探头PIP(Precipitation Imaging Probe)DMT62通道,100~6200 μm100 μm用于取得降水粒子谱及图像。
    云粒子成像探头CPI(Cloud Particle Imager)SPEC10~2000 μm2.3 μm用于取得云滴、冰雪晶、雨滴图像
    二维立体成像光列阵探头2DS(2D-SOptical)SPEC10~1280 μm100 μm用于取得云滴、冰雪晶、雨滴图像
    高体积降雨分光仪HVPS(High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer)SPEC150~19200 μm150 μm用于取得清晰的降水粒子谱及其粒子二维图像。
    液态水含量仪LWCDMT0~3 g m−3云水含量
    总含水量传感器TWCNevzorov0.005~3 g m−3液水含量、冰雪晶含水量
    综合气象测量系统AIMMS-20Aventech温度:−50~50°C
    垂直气流速度:0~50 m s−1
    海拔:0~13.7 km
    温度:0.3°C
    速度:0.75 m s−1
    海拔:18.3 m
    用于测量大气温压湿风和飞机运动参数。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  两次垂直探测过程中各温度层云物理量平均值

    Table  2.   Average microphysical properties in different temperature layers in two vertical observations

    T/°CAB区域CD区域
    Nevzorov
    LWC/g m−3
    NCIP/L−1
    (D>100 μm)
    NCDP/
    L−1
    DCIP/μm
    (D>100 μm)
    Nevzorov
    LWC/g m−3
    NCIP/L−1
    (D>100 μm)
    NCDP/
    L−1
    DCIP/μm
    (D>100 μm)
    −5~00.010.03637.24123.519.512.6646.8741.0
    0~50.050.047734.02704.54.14.2519.5435.8
    注: NCIP表示CIP探头测量的直径100 μm以上的冰粒子数浓度;NCDP表示CDP探头测量的云滴数浓度;DCIP表示直径100 μm以上的冰粒子平均直径。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-08-15
  • 录用日期:  2020-05-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-05-14
  • 刊出日期:  2021-01-19

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