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飑线系统中的闪电活动与雷达回波特征的相关性研究

于函 张鸿波 刘冬霞 陈志雄 田野 袁善锋 王东方 卢晶雨 周筠珺 郄秀书

于函, 张鸿波, 刘冬霞, 等. 2022. 飑线系统中的闪电活动与雷达回波特征的相关性研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 1−10 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2101.20243
引用本文: 于函, 张鸿波, 刘冬霞, 等. 2022. 飑线系统中的闪电活动与雷达回波特征的相关性研究[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 1−10 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2101.20243
YU Han, ZHANG Hongbo, LIU Dongxia, et al. 2022. Relationship between Lightning Activities and Radar Echoes of Squall Line Convective Systems [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 1−10 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2101.20243
Citation: YU Han, ZHANG Hongbo, LIU Dongxia, et al. 2022. Relationship between Lightning Activities and Radar Echoes of Squall Line Convective Systems [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 1−10 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2101.20243

飑线系统中的闪电活动与雷达回波特征的相关性研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2101.20243
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目41630425、41805004、41875007,国际(地区)合作与交流项目41761144074
详细信息
    作者简介:

    于函,女,1996年出生,硕士研究生,从事雷电气象学相关研究。E-mail:jljyyh@126.com

    通讯作者:

    张鸿波,E-mail: zhanghb@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P446

Relationship between Lightning Activities and Radar Echoes of Squall Line Convective Systems

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41630425, 41805004, 41875007),International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange Project (Grant 41761144074)
  • 摘要: 基于北京宽频带闪电网(Beijing Broadband Lightning Network,简称BLNet)获得的全闪三维定位和多普勒天气雷达等资料,详细分析了2015~2017年北京暖季7次强飑线过程的闪电活动与雷达回波强度之间的关系。结果表明,闪电主要发生于前部线状对流云区内且集中分布在30 dBZ以上的强回波区域,少部分的闪电分布在后部的层状云区域内。从闪电辐射源三维分布结构可以发现,闪电活动大部分处在6~11 km的高度范围。将能够同时反映强回波深度和面积的0~−30℃温度区域内大于30 dBZ雷达回波体积(V30dBZ)作为强回波指标,并与闪电活动进行统计分析发现,整体上在7次飑线过程中,总闪频数和V30dBZ存在较好的相关性,其中5次过程的闪电频数峰值同时或提前于V30dBZ的峰值出现,二者的时滞相关系数超过0.61,提前时间为0~96 min。另外两次过程中闪电峰值落后于V30dBZ峰值,落后时间分别为30 min和60 min。研究结果不仅对认识闪电与对流活动的关系有重要的科学意义,也可为闪电资料在数值模式中的同化应用提供科学依据。
  • 图  1  北京宽频带闪电网(BLNet)的测站布局,测站如图中16个黑色三角形所示,红色边界为北京地区范围,绿色区域边界为河北区域范围,蓝色边界为天津区域范围

    Figure  1.  Layout of the Beijing Broadband Lightning Network (BLNet) with 16 stations (black triangles), the red line representing the Beijing area, the green line representing the Hebei area, and the blue line representing the Tianjin area

    图  2  2017年7月7日第一次飑线过程(a)12:36、(b)13:12、(c)13:48和第二次飑线过程(d)14:48、(e)15:36、(f)16:24的S波段雷达组合反射率(单位:dBZ)与6 min内闪电活动分布;(g)第一次飑线12:54的雷达组合反射率,(h)沿图(g)中黑色虚线的垂直剖面,叠加剖线前后0.1°范围、6 min内的全部闪电辐射源(黑点)分布。(a)至(g)图中黑色点代表云闪(IC),蓝色“–”代表负地闪(NCG),黑色“+”代表正地闪(PCG)

    Figure  2.  Composite reflectivity from the S-band radar and corresponding lightning distributions within 6 min of the squall line (SL) on July 7, 2017: (a) 1236 UTC, (b) 1312 UTC, (c) 1348 UTC represent the first process (SL1); (d) 1442 UTC, (e) 1536 UTC, (f) 1624 UTC represent the second process (SL2). (g) The radar reflectivity of 1254 UTC for the first process; (h) the vertical cross-section of radar reflectivity along the dotted line shown in (g) and the lightning radiation sources (black dots) within 0.1° in 6 minutes. From (a) to (g), the black points represent IC (Intra-Cloud); the blue “–” represents NCG (Negative Cloud-to-Ground); the black “+” represents PCG (Positive Cloud-to-Ground)

    图  3  2017年7月7日飑线过程中闪电频数和0~−30℃温度区域回波体积(V30dBZV35dBZ)随时间变化曲线:(a)地闪(CG)和云闪(IC);(b)正地闪(PCG)、负地闪(NCG)及正地闪比例(PCG/CG);(c)总闪频数[实线,单位:flashes (6 min)−1]和回波体积(虚线,V30dBZV35dBZ,单位:km3

    Figure  3.  Evolution of lightning frequency of the squall line on July 7, 2017: (a) Cloud-to-ground (CG) and Intra-cloud (IC); (b) Positive CG (PCG), Negative CG (NCG) and the ratio of PCG (PCG/CG); (c) total lightning frequency [solid line, units: flashes (6 min)−1], and the echo volume greater than 30 dBZ, 35 dBZ between 0 and –30℃ level (dotted lines, V30dBZ, V35dBZ, units: km3)

    图  4  2015~2017年BLNet观测到的另外6次飑线过程(a–f)的闪电频数[实线,单位:flashes (6 min)−1]和V30dBZ(虚线,单位:km3)的时间变化曲线

    Figure  4.  Evolution of total lightning frequency [solid lines, units: flashes (6 min)−1] and V30dBZ (dotted lines, units: km3) for (a–f) the other six squall lines from 2015 to 2017

    表  1  2015~2017年中7次飑线过程情况

    Table  1.   Overview of the seven squall line cases from 2015 to 2017

    个例时间
    (协调世界时)
    平均闪电频数
    /flashes (6 min)−1
    最大闪电频数
    /flashes (6 min)−1
    天气系统背景条件
    (500 hPa)
    2015072708:00~13:36284.21256东北冷涡系统
    2016060907:00~23:1235.3118槽前
    2016062108:00~14:5485.8429槽前
    2017070711:30~16:4895.2416东北冷涡系统
    2017071310:00~19:36115.1617槽前
    2017080209:48~20:068.596槽前
    2017080809:42~19:5451.2328东北冷涡系统
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2015~2017年飑线过程的时滞相关性分析

    Table  2.   Lagged correlation of the squall lines from 2015 to 2017

    个例闪电频数与V30dBZ

    滞关系
    最大相关
    系数(r
    时间差/min
    20150727滞后0.8030
    20160609同期0.680
    20160621滞后0.5860
    20170707同期0.720
    20170713超前0.696
    20170802超前0.7196
    20170808超前0.696
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-09
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-17

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