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华北典型农业区PM2.5组分分析与来源解析

曹宇坤 温天雪 张小玲 司瑞瑞 武欣蕊 李安娜 刘光静 马永翔 刘子锐 辛金元

曹宇坤, 温天雪, 张小玲, 等. 2021. 华北典型农业区PM2.5组分分析与来源解析[J]. 大气科学, 45(4): 819−832 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20159
引用本文: 曹宇坤, 温天雪, 张小玲, 等. 2021. 华北典型农业区PM2.5组分分析与来源解析[J]. 大气科学, 45(4): 819−832 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20159
CAO Yukun, WEN Tianxue, ZHANG Xiaoling, et al. 2021. Component and Source Analyses of PM2.5 in Typical Agricultural Regions of North China [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(4): 819−832 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20159
Citation: CAO Yukun, WEN Tianxue, ZHANG Xiaoling, et al. 2021. Component and Source Analyses of PM2.5 in Typical Agricultural Regions of North China [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 45(4): 819−832 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20159

华北典型农业区PM2.5组分分析与来源解析

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2104.20159
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2016YFC0202001
详细信息
    作者简介:

    曹宇坤,男,1996年出生,硕士研究生,主要从事大气环境与大气化学研究。E-mail: 1062722626@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    辛金元,E-mail: xjy@mail.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P402

Component and Source Analyses of PM2.5 in Typical Agricultural Regions of North China

Funds: National Key R&D Program of China (Grant 2016YFC0202001)
  • 摘要: 华北大气污染区域化正在对农业生态区域产生显著影响,为了了解华北农业地区大气细颗粒物PM2.5的季节分布特征,2017年7月、9月、12月以及2018年4月在中国科学院禹城农业生态综合实验站进行分季节PM2.5样品采集,并测定分析了样品中31种化学成分。结果表明,碳质气溶胶总体的浓度水平为13.11±8.37 μg m−3,有机碳(OC)冬春季节浓度较高,元素碳(EC)浓度在秋冬季节较高。同时OC/EC的比值在秋季明显偏低,表明在秋季二次碳质气溶胶对PM2.5贡献较小。水溶性离子浓度总体在冬季最高。${\rm{NO}}^-_3 $/$ {\rm{SO}}^{2-}_4$比值在夏季明显偏低为0.69,华北地区夏季固定点源对大气污染的贡献相对较高。PM2.5中金属元素以Na、Mg、Al、Ca、K、Fe等地壳元素为主,具有致癌风险的Co、Cr、Ni、Pb、As等金属元素年均浓度为0.32±0.24 ng m−3、5.40±5.42 ng m−3、10.23±7.46 ng m−3、42.23±27.75 ng m−3、5.66±3.79 ng m−3。受体模型(PMF)计算结果表明,PM2.5的主要来源为二次污染源、生物质燃烧源、燃煤燃油源、柴油车尾气和土壤源,贡献率分别达37.1%、18.2%、14.2%、9.4%和7.9%,表明农业区细颗粒物污染受到华北工业、农业与自然排放的多重影响。
  • 图  1  2017年夏季(7月6日至8月2日)、秋季(9月21日至10月20日)、冬季(2017年12月15日至2018年1月13日)、2018年春季(4月1日至4月15日)禹城PM2.5、OC和EC质量浓度的时间序列

    Figure  1.  Time series of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter), OC (organic carbon), and EC (elemental carbon) mass concentrations in Yucheng in summer (6 July to 2 August 2017), fall (21 September to 20 October 2017), winter (15 December 2017 to 13 January 2018), spring (1 April to 15 April 2018)

    图  2  禹城地区OC、EC浓度线性拟合的季节变化:(a)2017年夏季;(b)2017年冬季;(c)2018年春季

    Figure  2.  Seasonal changes of linear fit for OC and EC concentrations in Yucheng: (a) Summer of 2017; (b) winter of 2017; (c) spring of 2018

    图  3  禹城地区SOC质量浓度的季节变化:(a)2017年夏季;(b)2017年冬季;(c)2018年春季

    Figure  3.  Seasonal changes of SOC mass concentrations in Yucheng: (a) Summer of 2017; (b) winter of 2017; (c) spring of 2018

    图  4  2017年夏季(7月6日至8月2日)、秋季(9月21日至10月20日)、冬季(2017年12月15日至2018年1月13日)、2018年春季(4月1日至4月15日)水溶性离子浓度的季节变化。竖直线最高(低)点代表高(低)于平均值1.5倍标准偏差

    Figure  4.  Seasonal changes of water-soluble ions concentrations in Yucheng in summer (6 July to 2 August 2017), fall (21 September to 20 October 2017), winter (15 December 2017 to 13 January 2018), spring (1 April to 15 April 2018). The highest (lowest) points of the vertical lines represent the 1.5-times standard deviation above (below) the average

    图  5  (a)${\rm{NO}}^-_3 $浓度[C(${\rm{NO}}^-_3 $)]、${\rm{SO}}^{2-}_4 $浓度[C(${\rm{SO}}^{2-}_4 $)]的季节变化;(b)${\rm{NO}}^-_3 $${\rm{SO}}^{2-}_4 $浓度比值的季节变化。圆圈代表均值,横线代表中位线,竖直线最高(低)点代表高(低)于平均值1.5倍标准偏差

    Figure  5.  Seasonal changes of (a) ${\rm{NO}}^-_3 $ concentration [C(${\rm{NO}}^-_3 $)] and ${\rm{SO}}^{2-}_4 $ concentration [C(${\rm{SO}}^{2-}_4 $)] and (b) ratio of ${\rm{NO}}^-_3 $ concentration to ${\rm{SO}}^{2-}_4 $ concentration. The circles represent the mean values, the horizontal lines represent the median lines, and the highest (lowest) points of the vertical lines represent the 1.5-times standard deviation above (below) the average

    图  6  整个采样期内禹城地区金属元素浓度范围

    Figure  6.  Concentration ranges of metal elements in Yucheng area throughout the sampling period

    图  7  禹城地区金属元素浓度的季节变化

    Figure  7.  Seasonal changes of elemental trace metals concentrations in Yucheng

    图  8  禹城地区PM2.5污染源成分谱图:(a)柴油车尾气;(b)生物质燃烧源;(c)电磁电镀行业;(d)二次污染源;(e)土壤源;(f)燃煤燃油源;(g)道路扬尘源

    Figure  8.  Compositional spectrum of PM2.5 pollution sources in Yucheng: (a) Diesel vehicle exhaust; (b) biomass combustion source; (c) electromagnetic plating industry; (d) secondary pollution source; (e) soil source; (f) coal-fired fuel source; (g) road dust source

    图  9  PCA和PMF源解析季节变化:PMF(上);PCA(下)

    Figure  9.  Seasonal changes in PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PMF (Positive Matrix Factorization) source analysis: PMF (upper panel); PCA (lower panel)

    表  1  禹城地区不同季节碳组分浓度

    Table  1.   Carbon component concentration during different seasons in Yucheng

    COC/μg m−3CEC/μg m−3COC/CECCSOC/μg m−3CSOC/COC
    平均
    标准
    偏差
    最小
    最大
    平均
    标准
    偏差
    最小
    最大
    平均
    标准
    偏差
    最小
    最大
    平均
    标准
    偏差
    最小
    最大
    平均
    标准
    偏差
    最小
    最大
    2017年夏季5.163.060.5119.722.251.110.137.232.370.821.486.333.102.450.3916.890.580.100.390.86
    2017年秋季6.033.060.3623.194.672.450.9213.121.410.600.393.71
    2017年冬季14.946.044.6732.066.572.862.2212.922.330.351.583.568.633.632.4720.810.580.060.390.73
    2018年春季7.203.381.8813.122.691.450.645.812.830.861.665.624.352.140.838.030.600.100.360.81
    注:COC、CEC、CSOC分别表示OC、EC、SOC的浓度。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-05-27
  • 录用日期:  2021-04-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-04-10
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-15

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