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夏季南亚高压两类东—西振荡过程的联系及其天气效应对比

祝传栋 任荣彩

祝传栋, 任荣彩. 2022. 夏季南亚高压两类东—西振荡过程的联系及其天气效应对比[J]. 大气科学, 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21075
引用本文: 祝传栋, 任荣彩. 2022. 夏季南亚高压两类东—西振荡过程的联系及其天气效应对比[J]. 大气科学, 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21075
ZHU Chuandong, REN Rongcai. 2022. Relationship between Two Types of East–West Oscillations of the South Asia High in Summer and Their Influences on Weather [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21075
Citation: ZHU Chuandong, REN Rongcai. 2022. Relationship between Two Types of East–West Oscillations of the South Asia High in Summer and Their Influences on Weather [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(X): 1−17 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21075

夏季南亚高压两类东—西振荡过程的联系及其天气效应对比

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2106.21075
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目42105039、91837311、42075052
详细信息
    作者简介:

    祝传栋,男,1991年出生,博士,主要从事大气环流动力学研究。 E-mail: zcd@lasg.iap.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    任荣彩,E-mail: rrc@lasg.iap.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P434

Relationship between Two Types of East–West Oscillations of the South Asia High in Summer and Their Influences on Weather

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 42105039, 91837311, 42075052)
  • 摘要: 夏季南亚高压(SAH)中心呈青藏高原和伊朗高原双模态分布,表现为东—西振荡的形式。同时,SAH的东缘还存在规律性的向东亚地区东伸或西退至青藏高原,表现为另一种形式的东西振荡。本文利用NCEP1逐日再分析资料、APHRODITE逐日降水数据以及印度地区逐日降水数据,研究了SAH这两类东—西振荡的联系以及它们对亚洲地区环流和天气影响的差异。结果表明,SAH中心的双模态东 西振荡位相可显著影响其东缘东伸/西退的发生及其幅度。尽管在SAH中心呈青藏高原和伊朗高原模态时,均可以出现SAH东缘的向东亚东伸,但青藏高原模态下发生东伸的频率明显高于伊朗高原模态;在伊朗高原模态时则更容易出现SAH东缘的西退。而且,在青藏高原模态下发生的SAH东缘东伸的幅度也比伊朗高原模态时更大。进一步研究发现,SAH中心的双模态东—西振荡主要与印度北部及整个青藏高原地区的降水异常型密切联系,并与异常降水有关的热力和动力作用变化相耦合。而SAH东缘的东伸/西退则通过引起西太副高的西进/东退,与东亚地区偶极子型的降水异常(青藏高原中东部、长江与黄河之间的中下游地区的降水异常与长江以南地区的相反)相联系。此外,SAH中心为青藏高原模态且东缘发生东伸时,与SAH中心为伊朗高原模态且东缘发生西退时,青藏高原西部与中东部的降水异常总是呈显著反位相变化。
  • 图  1  北半球夏季(7~8月)200 hPa位势高度(黑色等值线,间隔:10 gpm)和西风急流(红色等值线,间隔:10 m s−1)以及500 hPa位势高度(橘黄色等值线,间隔:20 gpm)的气候态。灰色曲线表示青藏高原1500米的地形边界,从南往北,蓝色曲线分别表示长江和黄河

    Figure  1.  Summer (July–August) climatology of geopotential height (black contours, interval: 10 gpm) and westerly jet (red contours, interval: 10 m s−1) at 200 hPa, and geopotential height (orange contours, interval: 20 gpm) at 500 hPa in boreal. The gray curve delineates the Tibetan Plateau topographic boundary of 1500 m, and the blue curves mark the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers from south to north.

    图  2  基于(a、b)南亚高压双模态振荡指数(BOI)和(c、d)南亚高压东伸指数(EI)合成的200 hPa西风急流(红色等值线,间隔:10 m s−1)、200 hPa位势高度(黑色等值线,间隔:20 gpm)及其异常(阴影,单位:gpm)。(a)和(b)分别是根据逐日的BOI小于−1个标准差(南亚高压呈伊朗高原模态)和大于1个标准差(南亚高压呈青藏高原模态)合成的,(c)和(d)分别是根据逐日的南亚高压东伸指数(EI)小于−1个标准差和大于1个标准差合成的。打点区域表示合成的位势高度异常超过90%信度水平

    Figure  2.  Composites of the westerly jet (red contours, interval: 10 m s−1), geopotential height (black contours, interval: 20 gpm) and its anomalies (shaded, units: gpm) at 200 hPa, based on (a, b) the bimodality oscillation index (BOI) of the South Asia high and eastward extension index (EI) of the South Asia high. (a) and (b) are for days when the BOI is below (Iranian Plateau mode) and above (Tibetan Plateau mode) its normal value by 1 standard deviation (STD), respectively; (c) and (d) are for days when the EI is below and above its normal by 1 STD, respectively. The dotted areas mark the 90% confidence level of the composite geopotential height anomalies

    图  3  基于南亚高压的(a)伊朗高原模态(BOI<−1个标准差)、(b)青藏高原模态(BOI>1个标准差)合成的200 hPa相对涡度异常(红色等值线,间隔:5×10−6 s−1)、水平涡度平流异常(阴影,单位:10−5 m s−2)以及水平风场异常(矢量,单位:m s-1)。(a)和(b)分别是根据逐日的BOI小于–1个标准差和大于1个标准差合成的。打点区域表示合成的水平涡度平流异常超过90%信度水平

    Figure  3.  Composites of relative vorticity anomalies (black contours, interval: 5×10 −6 s−1), and horizontal vorticity advection anomalies (shaded, units: 10 −5 m s−2), and horizontal wind anomalies (vectors, units: m s−1) at 200 hPa, based on (a, b) the bimodal oscillation index (BOI) of the South Asia high. (a) and (b) are for days when the BOI are below (Iranian Plateau mode) and above (Tibetan Plateau mode) its normal value by 1 standard deviation (STD), respectively. The dotted areas mark the 90% confidence level of the composite horizontal vorticity advection anomalies

    图  4  同图2,但为根据逐日的BOI和EI(a)均小于–1个标准差、(b)分别小于–1和大于1个标准差、(c)分别大于1和小于–1个标准差以及(d)均大于1个标准差合成的。(a)WW、(b)WE、(c)EW、(d)EE分别表示南亚高压呈伊朗高原模态合并东缘西退、伊朗高原模态合并东缘东伸、青藏高原模态合并东缘西退、青藏高原模态合并东缘东伸

    Figure  4.  Same as Fig. 2, but for days when (a) both BOI and EI are below the normal values by 1 STD, (b) BOI and EI are below and above the normal values by 1 STD, respectively, (c) BOI and EI are above and below 1 STD, respectively, and (d) both BOI and EI are above 1 STD. (a) WW, (b) WE, (c) EW, (d) EE represents for the IP mode and westward retreat of the SAH, IP mode and eastward extension of the SAH, TP mode and westward retreat of the SAH, TP mode and eastward extension of the SAH respectively

    图  5  基于(a、b)南亚高压双模态振荡指数(BOI)和(c、d)南亚高压东伸指数(EI)合成的500 hPa位势高度(黑色等值线,间隔:20 gpm),水平风场(红色箭头,单位:m s−1)。(a)和(b)分别是根据逐日的BOI小于−1个标准差(南亚高压呈伊朗高原模态)和大于1个标准差(南亚高压呈青藏高原模态)合成的,(c)和(d)分别是根据逐日的南亚高压东伸指数(EI)小于−1个标准差和大于1个标准差合成的

    Figure  5.  Composites of the geopotential height (black contours, interval: 20 gpm) and horizontal wind field (red arrows, units: m s−1) at 500 hPa based on (a, b) the bimodality oscillation index (BOI) of the South Asia high and eastward extension index (EI) of the South Asia high. (a) and (b) are for days when the BOI is below (Iranian Plateau mode) and above (Tibetan Plateau mode) its normal value by 1 standard deviation (STD), respectively; (c) and (d) are for days when the EI is below and above its normal by 1 STD, respectively.

    图  6  同图5,但为合成的700 hPa水平风场异常(箭头,单位:m s−1)和降水异常(阴影,单位:mm)。打点区域和黑色箭头分别表示合成的降水和水平风场异常超过90%信度水平

    Figure  6.  Same as Fig. 2, but for composite horizontal wind anomalies (arrows, units: m s−1) at 700 hPa and rainfall anomalies (shaded, units: mm). The dotted areas and black arrows respectively indicate that the composite anomalies of rainfall and horizontal wind are statistically significant above the 90% confidence level

    图  7  同图5,但为合成的500 hPa位势高度(黑色等值线,间隔:20 gpm)和水平风场(红色箭头,单位:m s−1)。(a)WW、(b)WE、(c)EW、(d)EE分别表示南亚高压呈伊朗高原模态合并东缘西退、伊朗高原模态合并东缘东伸、青藏高原模态合并东缘西退、青藏高原模态合并东缘东伸

    Figure  7.  Same as in Fig. 4, but for composite geopotential height (black contours, intervals: 20 gpm) and horizontal wind field (red arrows, units: m s−1) at 500 hPa. (a) WW, (b) WE, (c) EW, (d) EE represents for the IP mode and westward retreat of the SAH, IP mode and eastward extension of the SAH, TP mode and westward retreat of the SAH, TP mode and eastward extension of the SAH respectively

    图  8  同图2,但为合成的700 hPa水平风场异常(箭头,单位:m s−1)和降水异常(阴影,单位:mm)。打点区域和黑色箭头分别表示合成的降水和水平风异常超过90%信度水平

    Figure  8.  Same as in Fig. 4, but for composite horizontal wind anomalies (arrows, units: m s−1) at 700 hPa and rainfall anomalies (shaded, units: mm). The dotted areas and black arrows respectively indicate that the composite anomalies of rainfall and horizontal wind are statistically significant above the 90% confidence level

    图  9  (a)BOI、(b)EI分别与NIRI和THI的超前/滞后相关。(a)和(b)中的横坐标分别表示BOI和EI超前的时间(单位:d);长虚线、短虚线分别表示BOI(EI)与NIRI和THI相关的90%信度水平

    Figure  9.  Lead/lag correlation of the (a) BOI, (b) THI with NIRI and THI respectively. The abscissa in (a) and (b) are the lead time of the BOI and EI (units: d), respectively; the long and short dashed lines denote the 90% confidence level for the BOI (EI)–NIRI and BOI (EI)–THI cross-correlation, respectively

    图  10  75°~95°E平均的(a,b)非绝热加热率异常(阴影,单位:K d−1)和环流异常(箭头,由经向速度v和垂直速度–ω合成得到,其中v的单位是m s−1,–ω的单位是0.005 Pa s−1)、(c,d)气温异常(阴影,单位:K)和位势高度异常(等值线,间隔:4 gpm)的垂直剖面。(a,c)和(b,d)分别是根据逐日的BOI小于−1个标准差(伊朗高原模态)和大于1个标准差(青藏高原模态)合成的,(a,b)和(c,d)中的打点区域分别表示合成的非绝热加热率异常和气温异常超过90%信度水平,灰色阴影区域表示地形

    Figure  10.  Cross sections of the anomalies of (a, b) diabatic heating rate (shaded, units: K d−1) and circulation (arrows, combination of meridional velocity (v) and vertical velocity (–ω), v is in units of m s−1,–ω is in units of 0.005 Pa s−1, (c, d) air temperature (shaded, units: K) and geopotential height (contours, intervals: 4 gpm) averaged from 75°–95°E. (a, c) and (b, d) are composites when daily the BOI is less than its normal value by 1 STD (IP mode) and greater than its normal value by 1 STD (TP mode), respectively. The dotted areas in (a, b) and (c, d) respectively indicate that the composite anomalies of diabatic heating rate and air temperature are statistically significant above the 90% confidence level. The gray shaded areas denote topography

    图  11  (a、b)沿27.5°N(西太副高脊线附近)的水平散度异常(阴影,单位:10−6 s−1)、位势高度异常(等值线,间隔:4 gpm)和垂直运动异常(箭头,单位:10−2 Pa s−1);(c、d)沿110°E的水平散度异常(阴影,单位:10−6 s−1)、环流异常(箭头,v的单位是m s−1,–ω的单位是0.005)和纬向风(绿色等值线,间隔:5 m s−1,仅显示大于10的部分)的垂直剖面。(a、c)和(b、d)分别是根据逐日的EI小于−1个标准差(西退)和大于1个标准差(东伸)合成的,(a,b)和(c,d)中的打点区域表示合成的水平散度异常超过90%信度水平

    Figure  11.  Cross sections of the anomalies of (a, b) horizontal divergence (shaded, units: 10−6 s−1), geopotential height (contours, interval: 4 gpm), and vertical motion (arrows, units: 10−2 Pa s−1) along 27.5°N; (c, d) horizontal divergence (shaded, units: 10−6 s−1), circulation (arrows, v is in units of m s−1,–ω is in units of Pa s−1 and has been amplified by 200), and zonal wind (green contours, unit: m s−1, interval: 5, values above 10 are shown) along 110°E. (a, c) and (b, d) are composites when the daily EI is less than its normal value by 1 STD (westward retreat) and greater than its normal value by one STD (eastward extension), respectively. The dotted areas in (a, b) and (c, d) indicate that the composite anomalies of horizontal divergence are statistically significant above the 90% confidence level

    表  1  根据南亚高压双模态振荡指数BOI和东伸指数EI,统计在不同的BOI强度下,南亚高压西退(EI<−1个标准差)和东伸(EI>1个标准差)事件的天数(单位:d)

    Table  1.   Numbers (units: d) of westward retreat (EI<−1) and eastward extension (EI>1) event of the South Asia high at different BOI intensities, based on the bimodality oscillation index (BOI) of the South Asia high and the eastward extension index (EI) of the South Asia high

    南亚高压双模态BOI(单位:1个
    标准差)
    南亚高压西退和东伸事件/d
    西退(EI<−1个
    标准差)
    东伸(EI>1个
    标准差)
    伊朗高原模态(–0.5,0)8991
    (–1,–0.5)7141
    (−∞,–1)7639
    青藏高原模态(0,0.5)71104
    (0.5,1)4076
    (1,+∞)7385
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-30
  • 录用日期:  2021-07-05
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