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基于飞机观测的美国落基山地区冬季混合相态层状云与夏季对流云的微物理特征

范雯露 景晓琴 杨璟 周思雨

范雯露, 景晓琴, 杨璟, 等. 2022. 基于飞机观测的美国落基山地区冬季混合相态层状云与夏季对流云的微物理特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(5): 1113−1131 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21046
引用本文: 范雯露, 景晓琴, 杨璟, 等. 2022. 基于飞机观测的美国落基山地区冬季混合相态层状云与夏季对流云的微物理特征[J]. 大气科学, 46(5): 1113−1131 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21046
FAN Wenlu, JING Xiaoqin, YANG Jing, et al. 2022. Microphysical Characteristics of Winter Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds and Summer Convective Clouds in the Rocky Mountain Region Based on Airborne Measurements [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(5): 1113−1131 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21046
Citation: FAN Wenlu, JING Xiaoqin, YANG Jing, et al. 2022. Microphysical Characteristics of Winter Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds and Summer Convective Clouds in the Rocky Mountain Region Based on Airborne Measurements [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(5): 1113−1131 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21046

基于飞机观测的美国落基山地区冬季混合相态层状云与夏季对流云的微物理特征

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2107.21046
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目2019YFC0214604,国家自然科学基金项目42075068、42005064、41905124,江苏省自然科学基金项目BK20190778、BK20190777
详细信息
    作者简介:

    范雯露,女,2000年出生,学士,主要研究方向为云降水物理。E-mail: fanwl2000@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    景晓琴,E-mail: xiaoqin.jing@nuist.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P401

Microphysical Characteristics of Winter Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds and Summer Convective Clouds in the Rocky Mountain Region Based on Airborne Measurements

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2019YFC0214604), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 42075068, 42005064, 41905124), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant BK20190777)
  • 摘要: 混合相态层状云与对流云的微物理特征有很大的差异性,但现阶段数值模式中并没有充分考虑两者的区别,这是导致云降水的模拟有较大不确定性的原因之一。为了加深对层状云与对流云的微物理特征差异的理解,并为模式的验证和参数化开发提供支撑,本文基于在中落基山地区进行的Ice in Clouds Experiment—Layer Clouds(ICE-L)项目和High Plain Cumulus(HiCu)项目的飞机观测资料,定量对比分析了该地区大陆性混合相态冬季较浅薄的层状云与较弱及中等强度的夏季对流云的微物理特征。其中,粒子图像和粒子谱通过2D-Cloud和2D-Precipitation探头得到,液态水含量通过热线式King探头测量得到,冰水含量基于粒子谱计算得到。主要结论有:(1)在−30°C~0°C的温度层范围内,夏季对流云内的液态水含量比冬季层状云高一个数量级,冰水含量高一到两个数量级,并且在对流云云顶附近观测到更多的过冷水。此外,夏季对流云中液态水含量在−20°C~0°C上随温度降低而升高,而冬季层状云则相反。夏季对流云中更活跃的冰晶生成和生长过程使得云内液态水质量分数小于层状云。(2)冬季层状云与夏季对流云内相态空间分布极不均匀。随着温度从0°C降低到−30°C,在冬季层状云中冰晶发生贝吉龙过程,云中的过冷水为主的区域向混合相态和冰相转化。而夏季对流云中相态结构更为复杂,体现了对流云中复杂的冰水相互作用。(3)在−30°C~0°C的温度范围内,夏季对流云的粒子谱宽度大于冬季层状云。随着温度的降低,冬季层状云与夏季对流云均存在粒子谱增宽的现象。(4)冬季层状云中,温度低于−20°C时冰晶主要为无规则状,在−20°C~−10°C观测到了辐枝状和无规则状冰晶,在−10°C以上观测到了柱状和无规则状冰晶,说明冰晶的生长主要为凝华增长和碰并增长。而夏季对流云以冻滴、霰粒子与不规则冰晶为主,说明主要为液滴冻结、淞附增长和碰并增长为主。(5)在夏季对流云较强的上升气流中存在较高的液态水含量,但垂直速度与云内冰水含量没有明显的相关性。
  • 图  1  ICE-L项目(红色线)与HiCu项目(蓝色线)的飞机飞行轨迹

    Figure  1.  Flight tracks of the Ice in Clouds Experiment—Layer Clouds (ICE-L, red lines) and High Plain Cumulus (HiCu, blue lines) project

    图  2  ICE-L实验(左)在2007年12月13日和HiCu实验在2003年7月28日(右)采样到的云个例的(a、g)雷达反射率(单位:dBZ)、(b、h)温度T(单位:°C)、(c、i)垂直速度w(单位:m s−1)、(d、j)液态水含量LWC(单位:g m−3)、(e、k)FSSP探头探测的数浓度(单位:cm−3)、(f、l)2D-C探头探测的数浓度(L−1

    Figure  2.  (a, g) Radar reflectivity (units: dBZ), (b, h) temperature (T, units: °C), (c, i) vertical velocity (w, units: m s−1), (d, j) LWC (liquid water content, units: g m−3), and NC (number concentration) measured by (e, k) FSSP probe and (f, l) 2D-C probe in cloud examples from ICE-L project (left) on 13 December 2007 and HiCu project (right) on 28 July 2003

    图  3  (a)CDP探头与King探头测量的ICE-L实验、(b)FSSP探头与King探头测量的ICE-L实验、(c)FSSP探头与King探头测量的HiCu实验云样本中液态水含量对比。红色直线为散点的线性拟合线

    Figure  3.  Comparison of LWC measured by (a) the CDP probe and the King probe in ICE-L clouds, (b) the FSSP probe and the King probe in ICE-L clouds, (c) the FSSP probe and the King probe in HiCu clouds. The red line is a linear fit line with scattered points

    图  4  (a)ICE-L、(b)HiCu采样到的云区在不同参数方案下计算的冰水含量在温度层上的分布。公式表示适用层状云、对流云的参数方法,红色、蓝色五角星符号分别代表适用方法下计算的冰水含量分布

    Figure  4.  Ice water content (IWC) calculated based on different mass–diameter relationships in temperature level observed in (a) ICE-L clouds and (b) HiCu clouds. IWC in stratiform and convective clouds is calculated by the formulas. The results are denoted by red and blue pentagrams, respectively

    图  5  ICE-L、HiCu整体以及HiCu云顶(与云顶距离小于500 m)的云内(a)液态水含量、(b)冰水含量、(c)液态水质量分数分别在各温度层上的分布。标记符号为平均值,误差线左右两端为10、90百分位点

    Figure  5.  (a) LWC, (b) IWC, and (c) liquid mass fraction in temperature level observed in whole ICE-L, whole HiCu, and HiCu near the convective cloud top (<500 m). The symbols represent the mean. The left and right ends of error bars represent the 10th, 90th percentile values, respectively

    图  6  不同温度层中(a)ICE-L、(b)HiCu整体以及(c)HiCu云顶的云内液态水质量分数的频率分布

    Figure  6.  Frequency distributions of the liquid mass fraction at different temperature ranges observed in whole ICE-L, whole HiCu, and HiCu near the convective cloud top

    图  7  不同温度层中ICE-L(左)、HiCu整体(中)以及HiCu云顶(右)的云内液态水质量分数和冰水含量的出现频率(彩色阴影)

    Figure  7.  Liquid mass fractions and frequency (color shadings) of IWC occurrence at different temperature ranges observed in whole ICE-L (left), whole HiCu (middle), and HiCu near the convective cloud top (right)

    图  8  ICE-L和HiCu实验中使用FSSP探头、2D-C探头、2D-P探头测量的(a)全部温度下、(b–d)不同温度层的粒子谱。直径(D)在1~50 μm为FSSP探头探测的小粒子谱分布,大于50 μm为2D-C探头和2D-P探头共同探测的大粒子谱分布。N表示粒子数浓度

    Figure  8.  Particle size distributions (PSDs) derived from FSSP, 2D-C, and 2D-P probes at (a) full temperature ranges and (b–d) different temperature ranges in ICE-L and HiCu. Diameters from 1 to 50 μm are measured by FSSP probe, while those larger than 50 μm are measured by 2D-C probe and 2D-P probe. N represents particle number concentration

    图  9  (a–c)ICE-L、(d–f)HiCu整体以及(g–i)HiCu云顶的粒子图像

    Figure  9.  Particle images sampled in (a–c) whole ICE-L, (d–f) whole HiCu, and (g–i) HiCu near the convective cloud top

    图  10  不同温度层上(a–c)HiCu整体、(d–f)HiCu云顶的上升气流中平均的(a、d)液态水含量、(b、e)冰水含量、(c、f)液态水质量分数的垂直分布

    Figure  10.  Vertical distributions of (a, d) LWC, (b, e) IWC, and (c, f) liquid mass fraction in the updrafts sampled in (a–c) whole HiCu and (d–f) HiCu near the convective cloud top at different temperature ranges

    图  11  使用2D-C探头测量的(a–c)HiCu整体与(d–f)HiCu云顶上升气流在不同温度层上的粒子谱分布

    Figure  11.  PSDs derived from 2D-C probe at different temperature ranges in the updrafts in (a–c) whole HiCu and (d–f) HiCu near the convective cloud top

    表  1  ICE-L项目在不同温度层和高度层的云内采样时长和云内采样路程

    Table  1.   Time in clouds and flight length in clouds sampled at different temperature and height ranges in ICE-L project

    温度范围/°C高度范围/m云内采样时长/s云内采样路程/km
    −32.5~−27.57107.95~7306.09 128 19.08
    −27.5~−22.54900.21~6700.33 943118.77
    −22.5~−17.54221.82~5180.071467179.99
    −17.5~−12.51794.89~5490.751277148.83
    −12.5~−7.51721.03~5051.61 471 56.17
    −7.5~−2.52139.76~4170.20 329 42.97
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  飞机探测仪器名称、主要探测对象、探测范围、探测方法

    Table  2.   Summary of detection instruments, main measurement, measurement range, and measurement technique on the aircraft during the research flights

    仪器名称主要探测对象探测范围探测方法
    云粒子探头CDP霾、云滴3~43 μm前向散射
    云粒子图像探头CPI大云滴、冰雪晶20~1500 μm二维成像
    FSSP-100探头云滴、小冰晶0.8~50 μm前向散射
    2D-C探头大液滴、冰晶、霰50~1500 μm二维成像
    2D-P探头大液滴、雪、雹100~6300 μm二维成像
    King探头液态水含量0.1~6.0 g m−3热线式
    多普勒云雷达WCR反射率、垂直结构>−30 dBZW波段
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  HiCu项目在不同温度层和高度层的云内采样时长和云内采样路程

    Table  3.   Time and flight length in clouds sampled at different temperature and height ranges in HiCu project

    温度范围/°C高度范围/m云内采样时长/s云内采样路程/km
    −27.5~−22.57766.72~8531.04 497 55.16
    −22.5~−17.57039.88~8475.772236240.57
    −17.5~−12.56117.56~7870.973387349.74
    −12.5~−7.55055.66~7200.135696607.98
    −7.5~−2.54622.10~6267.564765503.89
    −2.5~2.54130.20~5653.072193227.22
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-14
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-18
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-22

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