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X波段相控阵偏振雷达观测墨脱地区云降水宏观特征的统计研究

张蔚然 刘黎平 吴翀

张蔚然, 刘黎平, 吴翀. 2023. X波段相控阵偏振雷达观测墨脱地区云降水宏观特征的统计研究[J]. 大气科学, 47(1): 70−85 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21050
引用本文: 张蔚然, 刘黎平, 吴翀. 2023. X波段相控阵偏振雷达观测墨脱地区云降水宏观特征的统计研究[J]. 大气科学, 47(1): 70−85 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21050
ZHANG Weiran, LIU Liping, WU Chong. 2023. Statistical Characteristics of Cloud Precipitation in the Motuo Area Observed by X-band Dual-Polarization Phased Array Radar [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 47(1): 70−85 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21050
Citation: ZHANG Weiran, LIU Liping, WU Chong. 2023. Statistical Characteristics of Cloud Precipitation in the Motuo Area Observed by X-band Dual-Polarization Phased Array Radar [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 47(1): 70−85 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21050

X波段相控阵偏振雷达观测墨脱地区云降水宏观特征的统计研究

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2109.21050
基金项目: 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目专题“西风—季风协同作用对亚洲水塔变化的影响”,国家自然科学基金项目91837310
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张蔚然,女,1996年出生,硕士研究生,主要从事雷达气象研究。E-mail: 18751901557@163.com

    通讯作者:

    刘黎平,E-mail: liulp@cma.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P412

Statistical Characteristics of Cloud Precipitation in the Motuo Area Observed by X-band Dual-Polarization Phased Array Radar

Funds: Project of "the Influence of Westerly Monsoon Synergy on Asian Water Tower Change" of the Second Comprehensive Scientific Expedition on Qinghai–Tibet Plateaua, National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 91837310)
  • 摘要: 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目在墨脱布设了一部X波段相控阵偏振雷达(X-PAR),实现了首次对河谷地区云降水的雷达连续观测。为了揭示高原东南河谷地区云降水的宏观特征,本文利用墨脱X-PAR 2019年11月至2020年10月的观测数据定量分析了墨脱地区云降水回波强度、回波顶高等参数的月变化、日变化和高度变化,并与那曲地区夏季季风时期多普勒雷达观测数据进行了比较。研究发现:(1)墨脱地区回波顶高、面积、强回波所占比例以及回波分布范围在4~10月大于11~3月,4~10月降水频次高、对流性降水多,其中以6月最为显著。而进入4月后弱回波数量的大幅度增加导致了4~10月回波强度小于11~3月。降水回波月变化特征结合高原季风指数,将一年分为旱季(11~3月)与雨季(4~10月)。(2)雨季降水回波频次、顶高、面积均大于旱季,说明雨季降水频次更高、对流性活动更旺盛。降水回波频次、顶高、面积的日变化表明,旱季日降水主要发生在下午与上半夜,雨季主要发生在下半夜。(3)墨脱降水回波强度大部分小于30 dBZ,旱季在海拔高度3 km以上回波发生频次高,雨季在3 km以下高。(4)夏季季风期间墨脱回波顶高低于那曲,其顶高、面积日变化趋势与那曲不同。夏季季风期间那曲日降水主要集中在下午与上半夜,而墨脱则集中在下半夜。墨脱旱季云降水特征与那曲夏季季风时期特征较为相似。
  • 图  1  青藏高原地形(阴影,单位:m)与墨脱站地理位置(29°18′46″N,95°19′03″E,海拔高度为1305 m)以及2019年11月至2020年10月平均整层水汽通量(箭头,单位:kg m−1 s−1

    Figure  1.  Topography of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (shaded, units: m), geographical location of Motuo (29°18′46″N,95°19′03″E, 1305 m ASL), and average whole layer water vapor flux from November 2019 to October 2020 (arrow, units: kg m−1 s−1)

    图  2  观测区地形示意图

    Figure  2.  Terrain of the observation region

    图  3  2020年10月4日04:53:46 X-PAR观测第7层仰角(10.7°)的(a)ZH,(b)ZDR,(c)ρhv,(d)KDP,除掉地物杂点回波的(e)ZH,(f)ZDR,(g)ρhv,(h)KDP。红圈位置为地物和杂点

    Figure  3.  Plan position indicator (PPI) of (a) ZH, (b) ZDR, (c) ρhv, and (d) KDP at the elevation of the 7th layer (10.7°) observed by X-PAR on October 4, 2020, at 0453:46 BJT; (e) ZH, (f) ZDR, (g) ρhv, and (h) KDP are those whose ground clutter and spurious echo have been removed. The position of the red circle is the echo of ground clutter and spurious

    图  4  部分高度层X-PAR有效探测回波范围(黑色为可探测到的区域):(a)2 km;(b)3 km;(c)4 km;(d)5 km;(e)9 km;(f)10 km;(g)11 km;(h)12 km

    Figure  4.  Effective detection echo range of X-PAR is in some altitude layers (black area represents the detectable area): (a) 2 km; (b) 3 km; (c) 4 km; (d) 5 km; (e) 9 km; (f) 10 km; (g) 11 km; (h) 12 km

    图  5  墨脱X-PAR海拔高度可探测点数廓线图(高度分辨率:100 m)

    Figure  5.  Profile of detectable points of Motuo X-PAR with altitude (Height resolution: 100 m)

    图  6  不同月份(a)回波强度与(b)回波顶高发生频率的分布

    Figure  6.  Frequency distribution of (a) echo intensity and (b) echo top height in different months

    图  7  墨脱站月降水量随时间变化

    Figure  7.  Time variation diagram of monthly precipitation at Motuo station

    图  8  观测数据箱型图的逐月变化,箱型图中最高最低两点分别为最大值和最小值,盒子上下横线分别为上四分位数点(75%)与下四分位数点(25%),盒子中间横线为中位数点。(a)回波强度,图中折线为月平均回波强度的连线;(b)回波顶高,折线为月平均回波顶高的连线;(c)回波面积,折线为月平均回波面积值连线;(d)强回波发生频率,折线为每月强回波发生频率平均值的连线

    Figure  8.  Monthly variation of box chart of observational data; the highest and lowest points in the box diagram indicate the maximum and minimum values, upper and lower horizontal lines of the box represent the upper quartile points (75%) and lower quartile points (25%), respectively, and the middle line of the box represents the median point. (a) echo intensity, the line is the average of echo intensity per month in the figure; (b) echo top height, the line is the average of echo top height per month; (c) echo area, the line is the average of echo area per month; and (d) frequency of strong echo, the line is the average of the frequency of strong echo per month

    图  9  不同时间回波强度、顶高发生频率分布:(a)旱季回波强度;(b)雨季回波强度;(c)旱季回波顶高;(d)雨季回波顶高

    Figure  9.  Frequency distribution of echo intensity and echo top height at different time. Echo intensity in (a) dry season and (b) rainy season; echo top height in (c) the dry season and (d) the rainy season

    图  10  观测数据平均值的日变化:(a)回波强度;(b)回波顶高;(c)回波面积;(d)强回波发生频率

    Figure  10.  Daily variation of the average of the observed data: (a) Echo intensity; (b) echo top height; (c) echo area; (d) frequency of strong echo

    图  11  观测时间段内回波强度的垂直分布:(a)旱季;(b)雨季

    Figure  11.  Vertical distribution of echo intensity in observation period during (a) the dry season and (b) the rainy season

    图  12  旱季回波强度垂直分布的逐时变化

    Figure  12.  Hourly variation of the vertical distribution of echo intensity in the dry season

    图  13  雨季回波强度垂直分布的逐时变化

    Figure  13.  Hourly variation of the vertical distribution of echo intensity in the rainy season

    图  14  夏季季风期间(6~8月)(a)平均回波顶高、(b)平均回波面积日变化曲线与不同时间(c)回波强度与(d)回波顶高的分布

    Figure  14.  Diurnal variation of the average of (a) echo intensity and (b) echo area, and the distribution of (c) echo intensity and (d) echo top height at different time during the summer monsoon (June–August)

    表  1  X-PAR雷达参数

    Table  1.   The parameters of X-PAR

    主要参数参数设置
    工作频率9.3~9.5 GHz
    峰值功率256 W
    观测用时92 s
    最大探测距离42 km
    最小距离分辨率30 m
    仰角扫描范围0.9°~20.7°,以1.8°的步进角扫描
    波束宽度
    阵面法向角15°
    观测模式VRHI
    偏振体制双发双收
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-29
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-17
  • 刊出日期:  2023-01-18

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