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2020年8月10日四川芦山夜发特大暴雨的动热力 结构及地形影响

黄楚惠 李国平 牛金龙 陈贝 陈功 郭善云 龙柯吉

黄楚惠, 李国平, 牛金龙, 等. 2022. 2020年8月10日四川芦山夜发特大暴雨的动热力 结构及地形影响[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 989−1001 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21205
引用本文: 黄楚惠, 李国平, 牛金龙, 等. 2022. 2020年8月10日四川芦山夜发特大暴雨的动热力 结构及地形影响[J]. 大气科学, 46(4): 989−1001 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21205
HUANG Chuhui, LI Guoping, NIU Jinlong, et al. 2022. Dynamic and Thermal Structure and Topographic Impact of the Night Torrential Rainfall in Lushan, Sichuan on August 10, 2020 [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 989−1001 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21205
Citation: HUANG Chuhui, LI Guoping, NIU Jinlong, et al. 2022. Dynamic and Thermal Structure and Topographic Impact of the Night Torrential Rainfall in Lushan, Sichuan on August 10, 2020 [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 46(4): 989−1001 doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21205

2020年8月10日四川芦山夜发特大暴雨的动热力 结构及地形影响

doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2205.21205
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目91937301、42175002、42075013,国家重点研发计划项目2018YFC1507200、2021YFC3000905,四川省科技计划重点研发专项2022YFS0542,中国气象局创新发展专项CXFZ2021Z33、CXFZ2021J27,四川省气象局项目SCQXKJYJXMS202113、SCQXKJZD202101,四川省气象局智能网格预报创新团队项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄楚惠,女,1981年出生,硕士,高级工程师,主要从事天气诊断与预报应用研究。E-mail:huangchu267@sina.com

    通讯作者:

    李国平,E-mail: liguoping@cuit.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P445

Dynamic and Thermal Structure and Topographic Impact of the Night Torrential Rainfall in Lushan, Sichuan on August 10, 2020

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 91937301, 42175002, 42075013), National Key Research and Development Program (Grants 2018YFC1507200, 2021YFC3000905), Key Research and Development Project of Sichuan Science and Technology Plan (Grant 2022YFS0542), Innovation and Development Special Project of China Meteorological Administration (Grants CXFZ2021Z33, CXFZ2021J27), Project of Sichuan Meteorological Bureau (Grants SCQXKJYJXMS202113, SCQXKJZD202101), Intelligent Grid Forecasting Innovation Team of Sichuan Meteorological Bureau
  • 摘要: 由特殊喇叭口地形促成的四川雅安暴雨久已有名,研究颇多,而这一地区的暖区暴雨、夜发性暴雨的研究在业务预报和防灾减灾迫切需求的推动下也应加强。利用ERA5再分析资料,结合地面加密观测资料及中国气象局信息中心提供的三源融合近实时降水资料,对造成2020年8月10日四川雅安芦山的特大暴雨过程的动热力结构演变、触发机制和地形影响进行了诊断分析,揭示了弱天气尺度强迫及特殊地形影响背景下暖区暴雨的水汽、动热力结构演变及触发机制。研究得出:(1)此例暴雨属于500 hPa无明显影响系统、低层无急流背景下的东南风型暖区暴雨。在雅安“迎风坡”、“喇叭口”地形和芦山西南向“˄”型峡谷地形的影响下,配合西太副高西进、东南暖湿气流加强和850 hPa弱低涡辐合气流的共同作用而诱发产生,此次降水时间短,强度大。(2)降水开始到强盛期间,始终有边界层地形作用产生的抬升速度、气旋式涡度和水平辐合与系统性垂直上升运动、涡度和散度叠加,增强了低层辐合,加剧了垂直上升运动,促使降水加强。(3)差动θse平流使得暴雨区对流不稳定度增强。对流抑制能量为零的高能高湿环境中,500 hPa θse弱冷平流也是暖区暴雨触发的因素之一;傍晚地形冷平流触发了初始对流并沿海拔高度1500米地形线分布;暴雨区上游强降水造成雷暴冷池出流叠加山风在“˄”型峡谷西侧形成γ中尺度辐合线,并移至“˄”型谷地内维持;冷性气流在快速下山后亦以冷池形式维持在“˄”型峡谷东侧山脉附近,形成强温度梯度,这些因素触发并维持了芦山夜间特大暴雨。
  • 图  1  (a)雅安及其周边地区地形分布和(b)2020年8月10日20:00至11日11:00(北京时)芦山(站号56279)、芦山清仁(站号S7102)、芦阳镇磨刀村(站号S7307)、芦阳镇栏杆头(站号S7313)四个站点逐小时降水量(柱状,单位:mm)与累积降水量(折线,单位:mm,黑色圆点标注4站暴雨中心)

    Figure  1.  (a) Terrain distribution in Ya’ an and its surrounding areas. (b) Hourly precipitation (column, units: mm) and cumulative precipitation (broken line, units: mm) in Lushan (56279), Lushan Qingren (S7102), Modao Village of Luyang Town (S7307), and Langantou of Luyang Town (S7313) from 2000 BJT (Beijing time) on 10 to 1100 BJT on August 11, 2020. Black dots in (a) represent rainstorm centers of 4 stations

    图  2  2020年8月10日(a)20:00、(b)23:00 500 hPa高度场(等值线,单位:dagpm)叠加850 hPa水汽通量(矢量箭头,单位:g cm−1 hPa−1 s−1)和水汽通量散度(填色,单位:10−5 g cm−2 hPa−1 s−1)分布;10日23:00(c)700 hPa、(d)850 hPa风场叠加3 km和1.5 km以上地形高度分布

    Figure  2.  500 hPa geopotential height (isolines, units: dagpm) superposed with 850 hPa vapor flux vector (vectors, units: g cm−1 hPa−1 s−1) and vapor flux divergence (color shaded, units: 10−5 g cm−2 hPa−1 s−1) at (a) 2000 BJT, (b) 2300 BJT on 10 August 2020; (c) 700 hPa and (d) 850 hPa wind field superimposed over 3 km and 1.5 km terrain height distribution at 2300 BJT on 10 August 2020

    图  3  2020年8月10日23:00(a)沿30.15°N水汽通量(矢量,单位:g cm−1 hPa−1 s−1)及水汽通量散度(填色,单位:10−5 g cm−2 hPa−1 s−1)的纬向—垂直剖面;(b)10日09:00~21:00(协调世界时)沿(30.15°N,102.93°E)水汽通量散度的时间变化

    Figure  3.  (a) Zonal–vertical cross sections of vapor flux vector (shaded, units: g cm−1 hPa−1 s−1) and vapor flux divergences (vectors, units: 10−5 g cm−2 hPa−1 s−1) along 30.15°N at 2300 BJT on 10 August 2020 and (b) time variations of water vapor flux divergence along (30.15°N, 102.93°E) from 0900 UTC to 2100 UTC on 10 August 2020

    图  4  2020年8月10日(a)20:00、(b)23:00和11日(c)01:00、(d)02:00沿30.15°N垂直速度(填色,单位:Pa s−1)及uv流场的纬向—垂直剖面;(e)10日23:00沿30.15°N涡度的纬向—垂直剖面;(f)10日12:00至11日00:00(协调世界时)沿30.15°N地形抬升速度(单位:Pa s−1)的纬向—时间剖面;(g)10日19:00至11日04:00沿芦山站(30.15°N,102.93°E)地形涡度、地形散度(单位:10−5 s−1)的时间序列;(h)10日09:00~22:00(协调世界时)区域(29.5°~30.7°N,102.5°~103.5°E)平均风速(单位:m s−1)随时间变化

    Figure  4.  Zonal–vertical cross sections of vertical velocity (color shaded, units: Pa s−1) and u, v flow filed along 30.15°N at (a) 2000 BJT , (b) 2300 BJT on 10 August, (c) 0100 BJT, (d) 0200 BJT on 11 August 2020; (e) velocity along 30.15°N at 2300 BJT on 10 August; (f) zonal–time sections of topographic vorticity along 30.15°N from 1200 UTC on 10 to 0000 UTC on 11 August; (g) time series of the topographic divergence and velocity (units: 10−5 s−1) of Lushan Station (30.15°N,102.35°E) from 1900 BJT on 10 to 0400 BJT on 11 August; (h) time series of the area mean wind speed (units: m s−1) in (29.5°–30.7°N, 102.5°–103.5°E) from 0900 UTC to 2200 UTC on 10 August 2020

    图  5  2020年8月10日09:00至11日03:00(协调世界时)沿30.15°N(a)500 hPa与850 hPa θse差值的纬向—时间剖面(单位:°C)以及(b)差动θse平流(单位:10−2 K s−1)的纬向—时间剖面;(c)8月10日20:00 500 hPa θse平流分布;(d)温江站(56187)8月10日20:00T-logp

    Figure  5.  (a) Zonal–time sections of θse difference values (units: °C) and differential advection of θse (units:10−2 K·s−1) for 500 hPa and 850 hPa from 0900 UTC 10 to 0300 UTC 11 along 30.15°N; (c) 500 hPa advection of θse at 2100 BJT on 10 August and (d)T-logp diagram at 2000 BJT on 10 August in Wenjiang Station (56187)

    图  6  2022年8月10日(a)18:00、(b)20:00、(c)23:00地形温度平流总量的分布(单位:10−3°C s−1);(d)10日20:00地面风场分布;(e)地面3小时变温(虚线)叠加10日20:00至11日03:00 24°C等温线分布。(d、e)中灰色阴影为1000 m以上地形

    Figure  6.  Advection distribution (units: m s−1) of terrain height at (a) 1800 BJT, (b) 2000 BJT, and (c) 2300 BJT 10 August 2020. (d) Distributions of surface wind at 2000 BJT on 10 August; (d) surface temperature variations in 3 hours (dotted line), and 24°C isotherm from 2000 BJT 10 to 0300 BJT 11 August 2020. Gray shadows in (d, e) are terrain over 1000 m

    图  7  2020年8月10日(a)20:02、(b)21:54、(c)22:16、(d)22:44、(e)23:12和(f)11日00:19雅安雷达1.5°仰角反射率因子(单位:dBZ)叠加1500 m地形线分布

    Figure  7.  Ya’ an radar reflectivity (units: dBZ) distribution on 1.5° elevation and 1500 m terrain lines: (a) 2002 BJT, (b) 2154 BJT, (c) 2216 BJT, (d) 2244 BJT, (e) 2312 BJT on 10 August, and (f) 0019 BT on 11 August 2020

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-04
  • 录用日期:  2022-06-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-20
  • 刊出日期:  2022-07-19

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