This work analyzes the abrupt change in summer surface air temperature (SAT) in Central Asia (CA) and its relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Atlantic and snow cover in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau between 1980 and 2019 based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, CRU SAT, and snow cover and global SST data. The results reveal a significant summer SAT change in CA in 2005. The standardized regional average temperature index in CA shifts from the previous negative phase to the subsequent positive phase, indicating a significant summer SAT increase in CA. Analysis of the anomalous atmospheric circulations related to interdecadal changes in summer SAT in CA shows the abnormally enhanced anticyclonic circulation system in the west of CA after 2005. The atmospheric subsidence associated with the anomalous anticyclone can cause warming. On the other hand, the reduction in the amount of cloud caused by this anticyclone anomaly enhancement results in the increase in downward short-wave radiation and thus is favorable for the increased summer temperature in CA. Furthermore, the interdecadal summer SAT changes in CA in 2005 are closely related to SST warming in the middle and high latitudes of the North Atlantic and the reduction in snow cover in the west of the Tibet Plateau (TP). The SST increase in the middle and high latitudes of the North Atlantic can stimulate a Rossby wave propagating downstream. The reduction in snow cover in the west of the TP can cause warming to the above atmosphere through the snow albedo effect. The changes in both the North Atlantic SST and the TP snow can strengthen the anticyclone over CA, leading to an abnormally high summer SAT over there.