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2004 Vol. 21, No. 5

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An Eddy-Permitting Oceanic General Circulation Model and Its Preliminary Evaluation
LIU Hailong, ZHANG Xuehong, LI Wei, YU Yongqiang, YU Rucong
2004, 21(5): 675-690. doi: 10.1007/BF02916365
An eddy-permitting, quasi-global oceanic general circulation model, LICOM (LASG/IAP (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics) Climate System Ocean Model), with a uniform grid of 0.5°× 0.5° is established.Forced by wind stresses from Hellerman and Rosenstain (1983), a 40-yr integration is conducted with sea surface temperature and salinity being restored to the Levitus 94 datasets. The evaluation of the annual mean climatology of the LICOM control run shows that the large-scale circulation can be well reproduced. A comparison between the LICOM control run and a parallel integration of L30T63, which has the same framework but a coarse resolution, is also made to confirm the impact of resolution on the model performance. On account of the reduction of horizontal viscosity with the enhancement of the horizontal resolution, LICOM improves the simulation with respect to not only the intensity of the large scale circulations, but also the magnitude and structureof the Equatorial Undercurrent and South Equatorial Current. Taking advantage of the fine grid size, the pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is better represented in LICOM than in L30T63. The transport of ITF in LICOM is more convergent in the upper layer. As a consequence, the Indian Ocean tends to get warmer in LICOM. The poleward heat transports for both the global and individual basins are also significantly improved in LICOM. A decomposed analysis indicates that the transport due to the barotropic gyre, which primarily stands for the barotropic effect of the western boundary currents, plays a crucial role in making the difference.
Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Rice-Wheat Rotation as Affected by Crop Residue Incorporation and Temperature
ZOU Jianwen, HUANG Yao, ZONG Lianggang, ZHENG Xunhua, WANG Yuesi
2004, 21(5): 691-698. doi: 10.1007/BF02916366
Field measurements were made from June 2001 to May 2002 to evaluate the effect of crop residue application and temperature on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions within an entire rice-wheat rotation season.Rapeseed cake and wheat straw were incorporated into the soil at a rate of 2.25 t hm-2 when the rice crop was transplanted in June 2001. Compared with the control, the incorporation of rapeseed cake enhanced the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O in the rice-growing season by 12.3%, 252.3%, and 17.5%,respectively, while no further effect was held on the emissions of CO2 and N2O in the following wheatgrowing season. The incorporation of wheat straw enhanced the emissions of CO2 and CH4 by 7.1%and 249.6%, respectively, but reduced the N2O emission by 18.8% in the rice-growing season. Significant reductions of 17.8% for the CO2 and of 12.9% for the N2O emission were observed in the following wheatgrowing season. A positive correlation existed between the emissions of N2O and CO2 (R2 = 0.445, n =73, p < 0.001) from the rice-growing season when N2O was emitted. A trade-off relationship between the emissions of CH4 and N2O was found in the rice-growing season. The CH4 emission was significantly correlated with the CO2 emission for the period from rice transplantation to field drainage, but not for the entire rice-growing season. In addition, air temperature was found to regulate the CO2 emissions from the non-waterlogged period over the entire rice-wheat rotation season and the N2O emissions from the nonwaterlogged period of the rice-growing season, which can be quantitatively described by an exponential function. The temperature coefficient (Q10) was then evaluated to be 2.3±0.2 for the CO2 emission and 3.9±0.4 for the N2O emission, respectively.
A Possible Linkage in the Interdecadal Variability of Rainfall over North China and the Sahel
REN Baohua, LU Riyu, XIAO Ziniu
2004, 21(5): 699-707. doi: 10.1007/BF02916367
The instrumental records of precipitation, including some historical documentary evidence, show that the rainfall in North China during the rainy season (July and August) exhibits an interdecadal variability similar to the Sahelian rainfall. Both these areas exhibited a weak interdecadal rainfall variability prior to the 1950s, and experienced a long-lasting drought since the 1960s, with two rainfall decreasing transitions,one around the year 1965 and another in the late 1970s. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data are used to analyze the associated changes in atmospheric circulation during the second decrease transition. The changes of local atmospheric circulation at the end of the 1970s, at both lower and upper levels, contribute to the less precipitation in North China and the Sahel.
A Numerical Study of a TOGA-COARE Squall-Line Using a Coupled Mesoscale Atmosphere-Ocean Model
Shaowu BAO, Lian XIE, Sethu RAMAN
2004, 21(5): 708-716. doi: 10.1007/BF02916368
An atmosphere-ocean coupled mesoscale modeling system is developed and used to investigate the interactions between a squall line and the upper ocean observed over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean and Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE). The modeling system is developed by coupling the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) to the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) through precipitation and two-way exchanges of momentum, heat, and moisture across the air-sea interface. The results indicate that the interaction between the squall-line and the upper ocean produced noticeable differences in the sensible and latent heat fluxes,as compared to the uncoupled cases. Precipitation, which is often ignored in air-sea heat flux estimates,played a major role in the coupling between the mesoscale convective system and the ocean. Precipitation affected the air-sea interaction through both freshwater flux and sensible heat flux. The former led to the formation of a thin stable ocean layer underneath and behind the precipitating atmospheric convection.The presence of this stable layer resulted in a more significant convection-induced sea surface temperature (SST) change in and behind the precipitation zone. However, convection-induced SST changes do not seem to play an important role in the intsensification of the existing convective system that resulted in the SST change, as the convection quickly moved away from the region of original SST response.
Using a Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Scheme (MSPAS) to Study the Sensitivity of Land Surface and Boundary Layer Processes to Soil and Vegetation Conditions
LIU Shuhua, YUE Xu, LIU Huizhi, HU Fei
2004, 21(5): 717-729. doi: 10.1007/BF02916369
A series of sensitivity tests are performed to test the stability and sensibility of the Modified Soil-PlantAtmosphere Scheme (MSPAS), which was wholly introduced in a previous paper. The numerical simulation results from the experiments show good agreement with physical reality. Besides, some of the results are illuminating. Together with the first paper, it is concluded that MSPAS is a simple but effective model,and it is practically valuable in the research work of desertification control and reforestation in China
Generalized Method of Variational Analysis for 3-D Flow
LAN Weiren, HUANG Sixun, XIANG Jie
2004, 21(5): 730-740. doi: 10.1007/BF02916370
The generalized method of variational analysis (GMVA) suggested for 2-D wind observations by Huang et al. is extended to 3-D cases. Just as in 2-D cases, the regularization idea is applied. But due to the complexity of the 3-D cases, the vertical vorticity is taken as a stable functional. The results indicate that wind observations can be both variationally optimized and filtered. The efficiency of GMVA is also checked in a numerical test. Finally, 3-D wind observations with random disturbances are manipulated by GMVA after being filtered.
A Study of Formation and Development of One Kind of Cyclone on the Mei-yu (Baiu) Front
ZHANG Feng, ZHAO Sixiong
2004, 21(5): 741-754. doi: 10.1007/BF02916371
The paper presents one diagnosis of baroclinity and the coupling of jets during the developing process of a cyclone that occurred on the mei-yu (Baiu) front around the end of the second stage of the mei-yu (Baiu) in 1998. Results have shown thatμ(1) The advantageous changes of upper-level large-scale circulation caused the appearance and maintenance of the coupling between the upper-level jet (ULJ) and lower-level jet (LLJ) over the cyclone’s area. The coupling of jets in this case possesses some different characteristics from previous cases. Moreover, the coupling between the ULJ and LLJ caused the intensification of both lower-level convergence and upper-level divergence, which was favorable for the development of this cyclone. (2) From the analysis of the voricity budget, the role of lower-level convergence in the development of the cyclone was emphasized. Divergent wind in the lower troposphere was a direct contributor to the development of the cyclone. (3) During the development of the cyclone, cold air and warm air were active over the cyclone’s domain. Although this cyclone occurred at the mei-yu (Baiu) front, its development assumed baroclinity to a certain extent, which was just the main difference between this kind of cyclone and the first kind of low which is usually barotropic (or quasi-barotropic). (4) In recent years, studies on mei-yu front lows have paid more attention to the lower troposphere. In this paper, the analysis of the energy budget further supports this point: the certain effect of baroclinity forcing in the upper troposphere on mei-yu front lows cannot be ignored.
The Effect of Diapycnal Mixing on the Ventilation and CFC-11 Uptake in the Southern Ocean
Yongqi GAO, Helge DRANGE
2004, 21(5): 755-766. doi: 10.1007/BF02916372
The Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) is used to investigate the effect of diapycnal mixing on the oceanic uptake of CFC-11 and the ventilation of the surface waters in the Southern Ocean (south of 45S). Three model experiments are performed: one with a diapycnal mixing coefficient Kd (m2 s?1) of 2 × 10?7/N (Expt. 1), one with Kd = 0 (Expt. 2), and one with Kd = 5 × 10?8/N (Expt. 3), N (s?1) is the Brunt-V¨ais¨al¨a frequency. The model simulations indicate that the observed vertical distribution of CFC-11 along 88W (prime meridian at 0E) in the Southern Ocean is caused by local ventilation of the surface waters and westward-directed (eastward-directed) isopycnic transport and mixing from deeply ventilated waters in the Weddell Sea region. It is found that at the end of 1997, the simulated net ocean uptake of CFC-11 in Expt. 2 is 25% below that of Expt. 1. The decreased uptake of CFC-11 in the Southern Ocean accounts for 80% of this difference. Furthermore, Expts. 2 and 3 yield far more realistic vertical distributions of the ventilated CFC-waters than Expt. 1. The experiments clearly highlight the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean surface water ventilation to the distribution and thickness of the simulated mixed layer. It is argued that inclusion of CFCs in coupled climate models could be used as a test-bed for evaluating the decadal-scale ocean uptake of heat and CO2.
Uncertainty of the Numerical Solution of a Nonlinear System's Long-term Behavior and Global Convergence of the Numerical Pattern
HU Shujuan, CHOU Jifan
2004, 21(5): 767-774. doi: 10.1007/BF02916373
The computational uncertainty principle in nonlinear ordinary differential equations makes the numerical solution of the long-term behavior of nonlinear atmospheric equations have no meaning. The main reason is that, in the error analysis theory of present-day computational mathematics, the non-linear process between truncation error and rounding erroris treated as a linear operation. In this paper, based on the operator equations of large-scale atmospheric movement, the above limitation is overcome by using the notion of cell mapping. Through studying the global asymptotic characteristics of the numerical pattern of the large-scale atmospheric equations, the definitions of the global convergence and an appropriate discrete algorithm of the numerical pattern are put forward. Three determinant theorems about the global convergence of the numerical pattern are presented, which provide the theoretical basis for constructing the globally convergent numerical pattern. Further, it is pointed out that only a globally convergent numerical pattern can improve the veracity of climatic prediction.
Physicochemistry and Mineralogy of Storm Dust and Dust Sediment in Northern China
LIU Wei, FENG Qi, WANG Tao, ZHANG Yanwu, SHI Jianhua
2004, 21(5): 775-783. doi: 10.1007/BF02916374
Dust sediments collected from 1995 to 1998 in Beijing, Dunhuang, Inner Mongolia, Kashi, the Kunlun Mountains, Lanzhou, Ningxia, the Taklimakan Desert, and Xi'an, China, were characterized in terms of their physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Most aerosols and dust analysed ranged in texture from silty clay to clay loam. Their median particle diameters (Mds) generally ranged between 5 to 63μm,coinciding with those of loess from central China and the finest sand from northwestern China. The dust sediments were characterized by a predominance of SiO2 and Al2O3, followed by K2O. Their SiO2/Al2O3and K2O/SiO2 molar ratios ranged from 5.17 to 8.43 and from 0.009 to 0.0368, respectively. The mass concentration spectrum during a dust storm showed a single peak, rather than the triple peak generally observed under clear sky conditions. The dominant minerals were chlorite, illite, calcite, and dolomite.These physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties were consistent with those of aeolian soils and loess in western and central China. The results suggest that aerosols and fine-gained fractions of dust sediments collected in northern China are mainly composed of soil material transported from the arid and semiarid regions of China and Mongolia by prevailing winds. The rate of deposition and properties of dust falling on eastern China were strongly influenced by meteorological conditions, season, latitude, longitude, and altitude of the sampling sites.
A Possible Feedback Mechanism Involving the Arctic Freshwater,the Arctic Sea Ice, and the North Atlantic Drift
Odd Helge OTTER, Helge DRANGE
2004, 21(5): 784-801. doi: 10.1007/BF02916375
Model studies point to enhanced warming and to increased freshwater fluxes to high northern latitudes in response to global warming. In order to address possible feedbacks in the ice-ocean system in response to such changes, the combined effect of increased freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean and Arctic warming--the latter manifested as a gradual melting of the Arctic sea ice--is examined using a 3-D isopycnic coordinate ocean general circulation model. A suite of three idealized experiments is carried out: one control integration, one integration with a doubling of the modern Arctic river runoff, and a third more extreme case, where the river runoff is five times the modern value. In the two freshwater cases, the sea ice thickness is reduced by 1.5-2 m in the central Arctic Ocean over a 50-year period. The modelled ocean response is qualitatively the same for both perturbation experiments: freshwater propagates into the Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, leading to an initial weakening of the North Atlantic Drift.Furthermore, changes in the geostrophic currents in the central Arctic and melting of the Arctic sea ice lead to an intensified Beaufort Gyre, which in turn increases the southward volume transport through the Canadian Archipelago. To compensate for this southward transport of mass, more warm and saline Atlantic water is carried northward with the North Atlantic Drift. It is found that the increased transport of salt into the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas tends to counteract the impact of the increased freshwater originating from the Arctic, leading to a stabilization of the North Atlantic Drift.
Diagnostic Study on the Structural Characteristics of a Typical Mei-yu Front System and Its Maintenance Mechanism
JIANG Jianying, NI Yunqi
2004, 21(5): 802-813. doi: 10.1007/BF02916376
In this paper, a typical mei-yu front process with heavy rainfall from June 12 to 15 in 1998 is analyzed. The results show that the mei-yu front is a front system which consists of an iso-θe dense area with strong horizontal gradient, a deep-convective cloud tower band, a passageway transporting warm and moist air flow from the summer monsoon surge in the mid and low levels to the south of the mei-yu front,and a migrating synoptic scale trough to the north of the mei-yu front, which transports cold and dry air southward in the mid and upper levels. The maintenance of the mei-yu front is realized by: (1) is a positive feedback between the moist physical process enhancing frontogenesis and the development of the strong convective system in front of the mei-yu front; (2) the sustaining system to the north of the mei-yu front which is a migrating synoptic scale trough transporting cold and dry air to the mei-yu front and positive vorticity to the mesoscale system in front of the mei-yu front.
Interaction of Mesoscale Convection and Frontogenesis
PENG Jiayi, FANG Juan, WU Rongsheng
2004, 21(5): 814-823. doi: 10.1007/BF02916377
On the basis of the MM5 simulation data of the severe storm that occurred over the southeastern part of Hubei province on 21 July 1998, the interaction of mesoscale convection and frontogenesis is dealt with using the thermodynamical equation and frontogenetical function. The results show that the outbreak of the severe storm is closely related to the local frontogenesis. In fact, the interaction between the shearing instability of the low-level jet (LLJ) and the topographic forcing generates an gravity-inertia wave as well as local frontogenesis (the first front), which consequently induce the onset of the severe storm. From then on, owing to the horizontal and vertical advection of the potential temperature, the new frontogenesis (the second front) is formed to the northeast side of the severe storm, which initiates the second rain belt.Meanwhile, a two-front structure emerges over the southeastern part of Hubei province. Accompanied with the further intensification of the convection, the rain droplets evaporation cooling strengthens the first front and weakens the second front, resulting in single front structure over the southeastern part of Hubei province in the period of the strong convection.
Research Project Entitled "The Dynamics and Physical Processes in The Weather and Climate System" --Part Ⅰ: A Brief Introduction
LUO Yunfeng, ZHENG Wenjing, ZHOU Xiaogang
2004, 21(5): 824-829. doi: 10.1007/BF02916378
In the beginning of the 21st century, the Tenth Five-Year Priority Research Projects of the Earth Sciences of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) were initiated. After nearly a two-year long process to prepare, the first version of six Priority Research Projects of Earth Sciences was published in October 2001 by NSFC, viz., Local Response to Global Changes, Life Process and Environment,Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System, Continental Dynamics, Regional Sustainable Development, Solar-Terrestrial Environment and Space Weather. The process involved more than 200 renowned Chinese scientists and many departments and agencies in China. The six Priority Research Projects guide the research effort of the earth sciences for the NSFC from year 2001 to 2005.This paper provides a brief introduction to the Third Priority Research Project of the Department of Earth Sciences of NSFC-Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System (DPWOS).
Tracking Surface Cyclones with Moist Potential Vorticity
Zuohao CAO, Da-Lin ZHANG
2004, 21(5): 830-835. doi: 10.1007/BF02916379
Surface cyclone tracks are investigated in the context of moist potential vorticity (MPV). A prognostic equation of surface absolute vorticity is derived which provides a basis for using negative MPV (NMPV) in the troposphere as an alternative approach to track surface cyclones. An observed case study of explosive lee cyclogenesis is performed to test the effectiveness of the MPV approach. It is shown that when a surface cyclone signal is absent due to the blocking of the Rocky Mountains, the surface cyclone can be well identified by tracing the peak NMPV.