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A Diagnostic Study of Record Heavy Rain in Twin Cities Islāmābad-Rāwalpindi


doi: 10.1007/BF02915599

  • Using surface and NCEP reanalysis data along with radar and satellite images, diagnosis has been July 2001. It has been revealed that the sudden evolution of this meso-scale severe weather system was the direct result of strong surface convection in moist and unstable lower layers of the atmosphere. The subsequent rapid development was the combined effect of the presence of the mid latitude westerly's trough in the north and moisture feeding through monsoon flow along the Himalayas and also the direct southwesterly current from the Arabian Sea. After the westward shifting of the Sub-Tropical High (STH) from the north of India, the strong divergence zone on its eastern edge contributed positively to the development of upward motion. Initially the convective systems moved towards the south and then southeastward following the steering current in the middle troposphere. Based on these analyses, the physical model of the sudden record heavy rainfall has been proposed and a comparison between the heavy rainfall in this case and one in China has been conducted.
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    [2] Huizhen YU, Zhiyong MENG, 2022: The Impact of Moist Physics on the Sensitive Area Identification for Heavy Rainfall Associated Weather Systems, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 39, 684-696.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-021-0278-9
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    [4] Angkool WANGWONGCHAI, ZHAO Sixiong, ZENG Qingcun, 2005: A Case Study on a Strong Tropical Disturbance and Record Heavy Rainfall in Hat Yai, Thailand during the Winter Monsoon, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 22, 436-450.  doi: 10.1007/BF02918757
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    [6] Yuan Zhuojian, Wang Tongmei, He Haiyan, Luo Huibang, Guo Yufu, 2000: A Comparison between Numerical Simulations of Forced Local Hadley (Anti-Hadley) Circulation in East Asian and Indian Monsoon Regions, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 17, 538-554.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-000-0017-6
    [7] Jo-Han LEE, Dong-Kyou LEE, Hyun-Ha LEE, Yonghan CHOI, Hyung-Woo KIM, 2010: Radar Data Assimilation for the Simulation of Mesoscale Convective Systems, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27, 1025-1042.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-9162-8
    [8] XU Zhifang, GE Wenzhong, DANG Renqing, Toshio IGUCHI, Takao TAKADA, 2003: Application of TRMM/PR Data for Numerical Simulations with Mesoscale Model MM5, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 20, 185-193.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-003-0003-x
    [9] Iman ROUSTA, Mehdi DOOSTKAMIAN, Esmaeil HAGHIGHI, Hamid Reza GHAFARIAN MALAMIRI, Parvane YARAHMADI, 2017: Analysis of Spatial Autocorrelation Patterns of Heavy and Super-Heavy Rainfall in Iran, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 34, 1069-1081.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6227-y
    [10] WANG Xiaokang, NI Yunqi, XU Wenhui, GU Chunli, QIU Xuexing, 2011: Water Cycle and Microphysical Processes Associated with a Mesoscale Convective Vortex System in the Dabie Mountain Area, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 28, 1405-1422.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-011-0089-5
    [11] Xiuzhen LI, Wen ZHOU, Yongqin David CHEN, 2016: Detecting the Origins of Moisture over Southeast China: Seasonal Variation and Heavy Rainfall, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 33, 319-329.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-015-4197-5
    [12] Chang-Kyun PARK, Minhee CHANG, Chang-Hoi HO, Kyung-Ja HA, Jinwon KIM, Byung-Ju SOHN, 2021: Two Types of Diurnal Variations in Heavy Rainfall during July over Korea, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 38, 2201-2211.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-021-1178-8
    [13] HOU Tuanjie, Fanyou KONG, CHEN Xunlai, LEI Hengchi, HU Zhaoxia, 2015: Evaluation of Radar and Automatic Weather Station Data Assimilation for a Heavy Rainfall Event in Southern China, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 967-978.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-4155-7
    [14] WANG Shuzhou, YU Entao, WANG Huijun, 2012: A Simulation Study of a Heavy Rainfall Process over the Yangtze River Valley Using the Two-Way Nesting Approach, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 29, 731-743.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-1176-y
    [15] Ui-Yong BYUN, Jinkyu HONG, Song-You HONG, Hyeyum Hailey SHIN, 2015: Numerical Simulations of Heavy Rainfall over Central Korea on 21 September 2010 Using the WRF Model, ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 32, 855-869.  doi: 10.1007/s00376-014-4075-6
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Manuscript History

Manuscript received: 10 November 2004
Manuscript revised: 10 November 2004
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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A Diagnostic Study of Record Heavy Rain in Twin Cities Islāmābad-Rāwalpindi

  • 1. Meteorological Service of Pakistan, P. O. Box 1214, Islāmābad-Pakistan;Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100029;Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100039,Meteorological Service of Pakistan, P. O. Box 1214, Islāmābad-Pakistan,Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100029,Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100029

Abstract: Using surface and NCEP reanalysis data along with radar and satellite images, diagnosis has been July 2001. It has been revealed that the sudden evolution of this meso-scale severe weather system was the direct result of strong surface convection in moist and unstable lower layers of the atmosphere. The subsequent rapid development was the combined effect of the presence of the mid latitude westerly's trough in the north and moisture feeding through monsoon flow along the Himalayas and also the direct southwesterly current from the Arabian Sea. After the westward shifting of the Sub-Tropical High (STH) from the north of India, the strong divergence zone on its eastern edge contributed positively to the development of upward motion. Initially the convective systems moved towards the south and then southeastward following the steering current in the middle troposphere. Based on these analyses, the physical model of the sudden record heavy rainfall has been proposed and a comparison between the heavy rainfall in this case and one in China has been conducted.

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